Date of the first record

The date of the first documented record of the species occurrence in a country/country region.
Date fields usage example:

Date to be specifiedDate FromDate To
Exact 198519851985
18th century17011800
before 1700 1700
after 20012001 

Environmental position

Environment(s) occupied by a species throughout its life cycle.

OPTIONS:

Biofouling. Assemblage of organisms on wetted artificial substrates.

Commensal. An organism in a symbiotic relationship, in which one benefits while the other is not adversely affected.

Demersal. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Ectoparasite. A parasite living on the surface of its host.

Endoparasite. A parasite living within the organs or tissues of its host.

Epifaunal. Synonym: epibenthic. An animal inhabiting the surface of the seabed, submerged plants and animals.

Epilithic. An organism living on the surface of rock or other hard inorganic substrata.

Epiphytic. An organism living on the surface of a plant, non-parasitic.

Epizoic. An organism living on the surface of an animal, non-parasitic.

Infaunal. Synonym: endobenthic. An animal living within the seabed sediments.

Interstitial. An organism (< 1 mm) living in the spaces between sediment particles.

Lithotomous. An organism burrowing into rock.

Neustonic. An organism living on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Pelagic. An organism inhabiting the water column.

Pleustonic. An organism inhabiting the water surface due to their own buoyancy, normally positioned partly in the water and partly in the air.

Habitat type

Estuary. River mouth, transition zone between riverine and marine environments, subject to influences from both.

Lagoon. Shallow, enclosed water body separated from the sea by barrier islands, narrow spit or reefs.

Offshore. Areas located at least 50 nautical miles from the shore.

Open coast. A coast not sheltered from the sea.

Strait/Sound. Channels between the mainland and an island or between two islands which are open at both ends to the open coast (it does not refer to similar features or narrows within marine inlets).

Sheltered coastal area. Coastal area partly surrounded by land (e.g., bay, inlet, fjord).

Ports. A location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbours where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.

Port vicinity. The area near a port where ballast water operations may occur, including areas where vessels may conduct ballast water discharge or uptake operations when approaching a port or leaving it, e.g., port approaches, anchorage areas and designated ballast water exchange areas. The dimension is port specific.

Marina. A specially designed harbour for pleasure craft and small boats.

Aquaculture sites. Areas set out for the purpose of farming aquatic organisms.

Marine Protected Area (MPA). Defined marine area where natural resources are given greater protection than the surrounding waters. Different categories exist depending on the level of protection afforded by legislation.

Migration pattern

Diurnal. Movements between alternative habitats over day and night, e.g. vertical migration.

Life-time. One time migration between different habitats during the life cycle, e.g. anadromus migration.

Not relevant. No evidence of any life history cycle stages to migrate.

Seasonal. Movements between alternative habitats during a specific time of a year (e.g., spawning and feeding migrations).

Pathway / Vector

Pathway

A pathway is the route a NIS takes to enter or spread through a non-native ecosystem e.g. vessels. Each pathway may have a number of vectors.

Vector

A vector is a transfer mechanism and is the physical means by which species are transported from one geographic region to another. More than one vector within a pathway may be involved in a transfer of species.

Pathways and vectors included:
PathwayVector
Aquarium tradeIntentional organism release
Transported water
Waste discharge
Culture activitiesAquaculture equipment
Associated water & packaging material
Intercontinental stock movement
Regional stock movement
Unintentional release & escapees
Leisure activitiesAngling catch
Cultural releases
Live bait
Live souvenirs
Sport equipment
Stocking for angling
Waste discharge
Live food tradeIntentional organism release
Transported water
Waste discharge
ManagementBiological habitat management
Construction equipment
Construction materials
Release for biological control
Natural spread from neighboring countriesOther natural vectors
Water currents
Other canalsCanal de Midi (linking the Bay of Biscay with the Mediterranean Sea)
Kiel Canal (linking the North Sea with the Baltic)
Northern waterway (linking the Baltic with the Ponto-Caspian region through Volga river canal system)
Rhone waterway (linking the North Sea with the Mediterranean)
Southern waterway (linking the North Sea with the Black Sea through Danube river canal system)
Central waterway (linking the Baltic Sea with the Black Sea through the Dnieper river canal system)
Other waterways
Irrigation canals
Research and educationGear movement
Intentional releases
Unintentional release & escapees
Waste discharge
Suez Canal 
VesselsAnchor and anchor chain
Ballast tank sediments
Ballast water
Ship’s hull
Sea chest
Others
Wild fisheriesDiscard of by-catch
Fishing gear
Live bait release
Live packaging material
Processed live material
Stock movements
Transported water

Pathway / Vector – Levels of certainty:
LevelCriteriaExamples
Direct evidenceThe species was actually found associated with the specific vector(s) of a pathway at the time of introduction to a particular locality within a country/country region.Documented evidence of an introduction: release to the wild for stocking or biological control; escape/release of live food; import of cultured species and documented findings of their associate organisms, parasites and diseases on transmission; appearance of organisms by hull fouling, ballast water discharge sampling or other ship vectors documented upon an arrival with appropriate scientific methods.
Very likelyThe species appears for the first time in a locality where a single pathway/vector(s) is known to operate and where there is no other explanation that can be argued for its presence except by this likely pathway/vector(s).A highly localized distribution of a species in an area adjacent to an isolated port or other locality where the only pathway is vessels and its vector(s) (ballast water, hull fouling, etc). This often involves geographically discontinuous distributions. It may be a continuous spread as in case of introduction by canals or by natural means. The conclusion is deduced from the analysis of the invasion event and species distribution patterns.
PossibleThe species cannot be convincingly ascribed to a single pathway, but is known to be introduced by this pathway(s) elsewhere.There may be more than one pathway involved in the introduction within a country/country region. Arrival of a species known to have taken place elsewhere by the same pathway(s) which operates in an area. A conclusion is made by expert judgment based on pathways currently or historically present.
UnknownInvasion of a given alien species cannot be clearly explained.Where no rational explanation for the appearance of a species in a given country/region.

Population status

Population status (the lowest level of certainty):

Unknown. There is no reliable information on population status of a species.
Established. A species is known to form a reproducing population in a wild.
Not established. There is no evidence of a species’ reproducing population in a wild.

Population status (the moderate level of certainty):
Extinct/no recent record. There are old records where a species was recorded but have not been seen in the same region since.
Rare/single record. There are only casual observations or a single record of a species'presence available.
Common. A species with successfully reproducing populations in an open ecosystem, which are unlikely to be eliminated by man or natural causes. Not dominating native communities.
Abundant. A species with successfully reproducing populations in an open ecosystem, which are unlikely to be eliminated by man or natural causes. Locally dominating native communities.
Very abundant. A species with successfully reproducing populations in an open ecosystem, which are unlikely to be eliminated by man or natural causes. Largely dominating native communities.
Outbreak. A species undergoing pulse-like, short-term (days to few months) exponential population growth during which they have an adverse effect on one or more of the following: biological diversity, ecosystem functioning, socio-economic values and human health.

Recipient region

The country/region for which introduction is recorded.

References.



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive duration

Long. Breeds in one or more discrete periods, each longer than three months.

Medium. Breeds in one or more discrete periods, each longer than a week and less than three months.

Short. Breeds in one or more discrete periods within a week.

Reproductive seasonality

Months for a species known to reproduce in the invaded site.

Salinity range

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Source region

The area the species was introduced from to the recipient country/country region. Depending on the information availability may be ascribed to a particular locality (e.g. port), a country, a LME or a larger Ocean region.
CAUTION: in many cases the source area will be not the same as the area of native origin which is defined in the SPECIES block of the database.

Species status

Non-indigenous species. Non-indigenous species (synonyms: alien, exotic, non-native, allochthonous, introduced) are species, subspecies or lower taxa (such as a variety, form) introduced outside of their natural range (past or present) and outside of their natural dispersal potential. This includes any propagule of a NIS, such as a gamete, seed or resting spore, a gravid female or a pair of individuals of different sexes (in sexual reproduction), or a vegetative reproductive organ and section of tissue (in asexual reproduction), which might survive, reproduce and subsequently form a population. It also includes hybrids between an alien species and an indigenous species, fertile polyploid organisms and artificially hybridized species irrespective of their natural range or dispersal potential.

Cryptogenic. Cryptogenic species are such species which cannot be reliably demonstrated as being either introduced or native. In some cases the true origin of a species remains obscure because of either insufficient taxonomic knowledge or due to a lack of records from the time they became introduced, or for other reasons.

Temperature range

Indicate min. and max. annual temperature range in the area where a species is known to maintain an established (reproducing) population.

Wave exposure

Exposed. Open coastline facing prevailing wind and receiving both wind-driven waves and swell.

Semi exposed. Generally open coasts facing away from prevailing winds or sheltered by offshore reefs/structures.

Sheltered. Coasts with a restricted fetch (<20 km) and lacking persistent swell.

Zonation

Ecological zone(s) occupied by a species throughout its life cycle.

Benthic - Bathyal. Synonym: continental slope. The seafloor between the edge of the continental shelf and abyssal plain (200-4000 m).

Benthic - Littoral. Synonym: intertidal. The shore between the high and low water marks.

Benthic - Sublittoral beyond photic zone. Synonym: lower circalittoral. The lower part of the continental shelf, where photosynthesis cannot take place.

Benthic - Sublittoral within photic zone. Synonyms: subtidal, infralittoral. The shallow part of sublittoral where photosynthesis can occur.

Benthic - Supralittoral. Synonyms: splash zone, spray zone, supratidal zone. The area above the spring high tide line, subject spray or splash.

Pelagic - Littoral. Water mass within littoral zone.

Pelagic - Neritic. Water mass above the continental shelf.

Pelagic - Offshore. Synonym: oceanic. Water mass beyond the continental shelf.

Public domain: Introduction event account

Species Ficopomatus enigmaticus  
Date of the first record (?) To 1937

References (not structured):
Zibrowius H, Thorp CH (1989) A review of the alien serpulid and spirorbid polychaetes in the British Isles. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 30: 271-285.

Comments:
Recorded from a sluice gate in 1937.
Recipient region (?) Country: United Kingdom (Britain)
LME: 24. Celtic-Biscay Shelf
LME sub-region: English Channel


References (not structured):
Zibrowius H, Thorp CH (1989) A review of the alien serpulid and spirorbid polychaetes in the British Isles. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 30: 271-285.

Comments:
Found in Weymouth Harbour of the south-west coast of Britain blocking sluice gates.
Source region (?) Unknown

Comments:
It is unclear from where the species will have arrived and it may have been a secondary introduction from the Thames population or from continental Europe.
Pathway / Vector (?) Not entered

References (not structured):
Minchin D, Floerl O, Savini D, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2006) Small craft and the spread of exotic species. John Davenport and Julia L. Davenport, (eds.) The Ecology of Transportation: Managing Mobility for the Environment, 77-97, Springer, The Netherlands.

Comments:
The distribution between estuarine areas and lagoons is almost certainly as a result of hull fouling. The species has been noted to form extensive fouling on small craft.
Habitat type (?) Not entered
Wave exposure (?) Not entered
Salinity range (?) Exact range: 1 - 35

References (not structured):
Hartmann-Schroeder G (1967) Zur morphologie, oekologie und biologie von Mercierella enigmatica (Serpulidae, Polychaeta) und ihre Roehre. Zool. Anz. 179: 421-456.
Wolff WJ (1969) Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel, een borstelworm van het brakke water, voor het eerst in Nederland gevonden. Levende Natuur 72: 85-92.
Straughan D (1971) Establishment of non-breeding population of Mercierella enigmatica (Annelida: Polychaeta) upsteam from a breeding population. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 69: 169-175.
Jenner HA, Whitehouse JW, Taylor CJL, Khalanski M (1998) Cooling water management in European power stations; biology and control of fouling. Hydroecologie Appliquee 10(1-2): 1-225

Comments:
As it occurs in lagoons it almost certainly can tolerate salinities that exceed 35 psu. Development is best within the range 10 to 30 psu and is inhibited at levels below 6 psu. Reproduction does not take place below 3 psu. At low salinities growth of tubes is slow due to the reduced calcium content in the water.
Temperature range (?) Min: 1
Max: 35

References (not structured):
Zibrowius H, Thorp CH (1989) A review of the alien serpulid and spirorbid polychaetes in the British Isles. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 30: 271-285.
Jenner HA, Whitehouse JW, Taylor CJL, Khalanski M (1998) Cooling water management in European power stations; biology and control of fouling. Hydroecologie Appliquee 10(1-2): 1-225.
Dixon DR (1981) Reproductive biology of the serpulid Ficopomatus (Mercierella) enigmaticus in the Thamey Estuary, SE England. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55: 833-864.

Comments:
Its distribution in Britain is thought to be close to its northern range on account of its temperature requirements for spawning. However, spawning can take place once temperatures exceed 15C. Tubes can grow at 10mm a week under ideal conditions. Dixon (1981) indicates that a minimum of 18C is needed for spawning.
Zonation / Substratum (?) Benthic and Pelagic:
Sublittoral beyond photic zone
Sublittoral within photic zone
Substratum:
Artificial (manmade)
Biogenic (living or nonliving)
Hard (cobbles to bedrock)

References (not structured):
Hiscock K, Hoare R (1975) The ecology of sublittoral communities at Abereiddy Quarry, Pembrokeshire. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55: 833-864.
Naylor E (1959) The fauna of a warm dock. In: Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of Zoology, 259-262. London.
Thorp CH (1980) The benthos of the Solent. In: The Solent estuarine system: an assessment of present knowledge. London, National Environment Research Council Publications, 76-85.

Comments:
This is a significant fouling organism of firm surfaces in brackish water conditions.
Reproductive duration (?)Medium

References (not structured):
Barnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. and Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.

Comments:
According to Barnes et al. (1993) breeds only once then dying. Species may survive two years with one reproductive period.
Reproductive seasonality (?) Jul.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.

References (not structured):
Barnes RSK, Calow P, Olive PJW (1993) The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.

Comments:
Breeding may be associated with lunar cycles and the population may breed over a long summer period.
Migration pattern (?) Not entered
Population status (?) Abundant (Moderate level of certainty)

References (not structured):
Davies, B.R., Stuart, V., & Villiers, M.D. 1989. The filtration activity of a serpulid polychaete population (Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel)) and its effects on water quality in a coastal marina. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 29, 613-620.
Dixon DR. 1981. Reproductive biology of the serpulid Ficopomatus (Mercierella) enigmaticus in the Thames Estuary, S.E. England. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 61: 805-815.
Monro, C.C.A. 1924. A serpulid polychaete from London docks (Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 13, 155-159.
Hiscock, K., & Hoare, R. 1975. The ecology of sublittoral communities at Abereiddy Quarry, Pembrokeshire. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55: 833-864.
Harris, T. 1970. The occurrence of Manayunkia aestuarina (Bourne) and Mercierella enigmaticus Fauvel (Polychaeta) in non-brackish localities in Britain. Journal ofExperimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 5: 105-112
Zibrowius H. Thorp CH. 1989. A review of the alien serpulid and spirorbid polychaetes in the British Isles. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 30: 271-285.
Jenner HA, Whitehouse JW, Taylor CJL, Khalanski M (1998) Cooling water management in European power stations; biology and control of fouling. Hydroecologie Appliquee 10(1-2): 1-225.
Naylor E (1959) The fauna of a warm dock. In: Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of Zoology, 259-262. London.
Tebble NB (1956) The control of Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel (Polychaeta) in Radipole
Lake, Weymouth in England. In:Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of
Zoology, Copenhagen, 444-446.
Thorp CH (1987) Ecological studies on the serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel) in a brackish water millpond. Porcupine Newsletter, 4: 14-19.
Thorp, C.H. 1994 . Population variation in Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel) (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in a brackish water millpond at Emsworth, West Sussex, UK. Memoires de Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 162: 585-591.

Comments:
It was first found in Weymouth and soon after in 1939 appeared in Plymouth, where it is still present (pers. ob. 2005). Later in Somerset at Portlock Wier in 1968, then Dover where it still is present (pers. ob. 2012) It is present in Southampton Docks. In 1981 it was found in a mill pond at Emsworth, in the western part of Sussex. Locally abundant and can form massive reef-like growths sufficient to overgrow firm surfaces to form large encrustations. Populations can undergo a wide variability in population abundance between years. The species is well recognised and may be expected to become recorded in many more areas. Populations may on occasion collapse when within contained water bodies as will have happened at the Emsworth Millpond in west Sussex.
Species status (?) Non-indigenous species

References (not structured):
the alien serpulid and spirorbid polychaetes in the British Isles. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 30: 271-285.

Comments:
Its true origin is unknown but some have considered it to have originated from the Indo-Pacific, possibly Australia. This may not be correct as specimens in Indonesia and India are recognised as F. ushakovi. May be from eastern South America but considered to be an introduction there by some. Its arrival in northern Europe is considered to be an introduction.
Created byDan Minchin 
Last update byDan Minchin, 2013-11-02
Contributors
Added by Dan Minchin
Edited by Romualda Chuševė, 2012-03-07
Edited by Dan Minchin, 2013-11-02