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Association with vessel vectors Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Date of the first record The date of the first documented record of the species occurrence in a country/country region.
Date fields usage example:

Date to be specifiedDate FromDate To
Exact 198519851985
18th century17011800
before 1700 1700
after 20012001 

Developmental trait Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Environmental position Environment(s) occupied by a species throughout its life cycle.

OPTIONS:

Biofouling. Assemblage of organisms on wetted artificial substrates.

Commensal. An organism in a symbiotic relationship, in which one benefits while the other is not adversely affected.

Demersal. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Ectoparasite. A parasite living on the surface of its host.

Endoparasite. A parasite living within the organs or tissues of its host.

Epifaunal. Synonym: epibenthic. An animal inhabiting the surface of the seabed, submerged plants and animals.

Epilithic. An organism living on the surface of rock or other hard inorganic substrata.

Epiphytic. An organism living on the surface of a plant, non-parasitic.

Epizoic. An organism living on the surface of an animal, non-parasitic.

Infaunal. Synonym: endobenthic. An animal living within the seabed sediments.

Interstitial. An organism (< 1 mm) living in the spaces between sediment particles.

Lithotomous. An organism burrowing into rock.

Neustonic. An organism living on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Pelagic. An organism inhabiting the water column.

Pleustonic. An organism inhabiting the water surface due to their own buoyancy, normally positioned partly in the water and partly in the air.

Habitat modifying ability potential Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Habitat type Estuary. River mouth, transition zone between riverine and marine environments, subject to influences from both.

Lagoon. Shallow, enclosed water body separated from the sea by barrier islands, narrow spit or reefs.

Offshore. Areas located at least 50 nautical miles from the shore.

Open coast. A coast not sheltered from the sea.

Strait/Sound. Channels between the mainland and an island or between two islands which are open at both ends to the open coast (it does not refer to similar features or narrows within marine inlets).

Sheltered coastal area. Coastal area partly surrounded by land (e.g., bay, inlet, fjord).

Ports. A location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbours where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.

Port vicinity. The area near a port where ballast water operations may occur, including areas where vessels may conduct ballast water discharge or uptake operations when approaching a port or leaving it, e.g., port approaches, anchorage areas and designated ballast water exchange areas. The dimension is port specific.

Marina. A specially designed harbour for pleasure craft and small boats.

Aquaculture sites. Areas set out for the purpose of farming aquatic organisms.

Marine Protected Area (MPA). Defined marine area where natural resources are given greater protection than the surrounding waters. Different categories exist depending on the level of protection afforded by legislation.

Life form Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Migration pattern Diurnal. Movements between alternative habitats over day and night, e.g. vertical migration.

Life-time. One time migration between different habitats during the life cycle, e.g. anadromus migration.

Not relevant. No evidence of any life history cycle stages to migrate.

Seasonal. Movements between alternative habitats during a specific time of a year (e.g., spawning and feeding migrations).

Mobility Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin The region the species originates from.

Pathway / Vector Pathway

A pathway is the route a NIS takes to enter or spread through a on-native ecosystem e.g. vessels. Each pathway may have a number of vectors.

Vector

A vector is a transfer mechanism and is the physical means by which species are transported from one geographic region to another. More than one vector within a pathway may be involved in a transfer of species.

Pathways and vectors included:
PathwayVector
Aquarium tradeIntentional organism release
Transported water
Waste discharge
Culture activitiesAquaculture equipment
Associated water & packaging material
Intercontinental stock movement
Regional stock movement
Unintentional release & escapees
Leisure activitiesAngling catch
Cultural releases
Live bait
Live souvenirs
Sport equipment
Stocking for angling
Waste discharge
Live food tradeIntentional organism release
Transported water
Waste discharge
ManagementBiological habitat management
Construction equipment
Construction materials
Release for biological control
Natural spread from neighboring countriesOther natural vectors
Water currents
Other canalsCanal de Midi (linking the Bay of Biscay with the Mediterranean Sea)
Kiel Canal (linking the North Sea with the Baltic)
Northern waterway (linking the Baltic with the Ponto-Caspian region through Volga river canal system)
Rhone waterway (linking the North Sea with the Mediterranean)
Southern waterway (linking the North Sea with the Black Sea through Danube river canal system)
Central waterway (linking the Baltic Sea with the Black Sea through the Dnieper river canal system)
Other waterways
Irrigation canals
Research and educationGear movement
Intentional releases
Unintentional release & escapees
Waste discharge
Suez Canal 
VesselsAnchor and anchor chain
Ballast tank sediments
Ballast water
Ship’s hull
Sea chest
Others
Wild fisheriesDiscard of by-catch
Fishing gear
Live bait release
Live packaging material
Processed live material
Stock movements
Transported water

Pathway / Vector – Levels of certainty:
LevelCriteriaExamples
Direct evidenceThe species was actually found associated with the specific vector(s) of a pathway at the time of introduction to a particular locality within a country/country region.Documented evidence of an introduction: release to the wild for stocking or biological control; escape/release of live food; import of cultured species and documented findings of their associate organisms, parasites and diseases on transmission; appearance of organisms by hull fouling, ballast water discharge sampling or other ship vectors documented upon an arrival with appropriate scientific methods.
Very likelyThe species appears for the first time in a locality where a single pathway/vector(s) is known to operate and where there is no other explanation that can be argued for its presence except by this likely pathway/vector(s).A highly localized distribution of a species in an area adjacent to an isolated port or other locality where the only pathway is vessels and its vector(s) (ballast water, hull fouling, etc). This often involves geographically discontinuous distributions. It may be a continuous spread as in case of introduction by canals or by natural means. The conclusion is deduced from the analysis of the invasion event and species distribution patterns.
PossibleThe species cannot be convincingly ascribed to a single pathway, but is known to be introduced by this pathway(s) elsewhere.There may be more than one pathway involved in the introduction within a country/country region. Arrival of a species known to have taken place elsewhere by the same pathway(s) which operates in an area. A conclusion is made by expert judgment based on pathways currently or historically present.
UnknownInvasion of a given alien species cannot be clearly explained.Where no rational explanation for the appearance of a species in a given country/region.

Population status Population status (the lowest level of certainty):

Unknown. There is no reliable information on population status of a species.
Established. A species is known to form a reproducing population in a wild.
Not established. There is no evidence of a species’ reproducing population in a wild.

Population status (the moderate level of certainty):
Extinct/no recent record. There are old records where a species was recorded but have not been seen in the same region since.
Rare/single record. There are only casual observations or a single record of a species'presence available.
Common. A species with successfully reproducing populations in an open ecosystem, which are unlikely to be eliminated by man or natural causes. Not dominating native communities.
Abundant. A species with successfully reproducing populations in an open ecosystem, which are unlikely to be eliminated by man or natural causes. Locally dominating native communities.
Very abundant. A species with successfully reproducing populations in an open ecosystem, which are unlikely to be eliminated by man or natural causes. Largely dominating native communities.
Outbreak. A species undergoing pulse-like, short-term (days to few months) exponential population growth during which they have an adverse effect on one or more of the following: biological diversity, ecosystem functioning, socio-economic values and human health.

Recipient region The country/region for which introduction is recorded.

References

References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

References.

References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive duration Long. Breeds in one or more discrete periods, each longer than three months.

Medium. Breeds in one or more discrete periods, each longer than a week and less than three months.

Short. Breeds in one or more discrete periods within a week.

Reproductive frequency Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive seasonality Months for a species known to reproduce in the invaded site.

Reproductive type Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Salinity range The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Source region The area the species was introduced from to the recipient country/country region. Depending on the information availability may be ascribed to a particular locality (e.g. port), a country, a LME or a larger Ocean region.
CAUTION: in many cases the source area will be not the same as the area of native origin which is defined in the SPECIES block of the database.

Species status Non-indigenous species. Non-indigenous species (synonyms: alien, exotic, non-native, allochthonous, introduced) are species, subspecies or lower taxa (such as a variety, form) introduced outside of their natural range (past or present) and outside of their natural dispersal potential. This includes any propagule of a NIS, such as a gamete, seed or resting spore, a gravid female or a pair of individuals of different sexes (in sexual reproduction), or a vegetative reproductive organ and section of tissue (in asexual reproduction), which might survive, reproduce and subsequently form a population. It also includes hybrids between an alien species and an indigenous species, fertile polyploid organisms and artificially hybridized species irrespective of their natural range or dispersal potential.

Cryptogenic. Cryptogenic species are such species which cannot be reliably demonstrated as being either introduced or native. In some cases the true origin of a species remains obscure because of either insufficient taxonomic knowledge or due to a lack of records from the time they became introduced, or for other reasons.

Sub-species level A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Temperature range Indicate min. and max. annual temperature range in the area where a species is known to maintain an established (reproducing) population.

Toxicity Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Wave exposure Exposed. Open coastline facing prevailing wind and receiving both wind-driven waves and swell.

Semi exposed. Generally open coasts facing away from prevailing winds or sheltered by offshore reefs/structures.

Sheltered. Coasts with a restricted fetch (<20 km) and lacking persistent swell.

Zonation Ecological zone(s) occupied by a species throughout its life cycle.

Benthic - Bathyal. Synonym: continental slope. The seafloor between the edge of the continental shelf and abyssal plain (200-4000 m).

Benthic - Littoral. Synonym: intertidal. The shore between the high and low water marks.

Benthic - Sublittoral beyond photic zone. Synonym: lower circalittoral. The lower part of the continental shelf, where photosynthesis cannot take place.

Benthic - Sublittoral within photic zone. Synonyms: subtidal, infralittoral. The shallow part of sublittoral where photosynthesis can occur.

Benthic - Supralittoral. Synonyms: splash zone, spray zone, supratidal zone. The area above the spring high tide line, subject spray or splash.

Pelagic - Littoral. Water mass within littoral zone.

Pelagic - Neritic. Water mass above the continental shelf.

Pelagic - Offshore. Synonym: oceanic. Water mass beyond the continental shelf.