Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

Species Corbicula fluminalis [WoRMS]
Authority (O. F. Müller, 1774)
Family Cyrenidae  
Order Venerida  
Class Bivalvia  
Phylum Mollusca  
Synonym (?)
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Ocean: Indian

References (not structured):
Korniushin AV (2004) A revision of some Asian and African freshwater clams assigned to Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Corbiculidae), with a review of anatomical characters and reproductive features based on museum collections. Hydrobiologia, 529(1):255-270

Comments:
Freshwater species, also found in estuaries of NW Africa and Oriental Africa, Middle East and Central Asia (rivers Kura, Amur-Darya, Euphrates, Jordan, Orontes)
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
ZoobenthosXXX
Phytobenthos
ZooplanktonXX
Phytoplankton
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)


References (not structured):
Morton B, 1982. Some aspects of the population structure and sexual strategy of Corbicula cf. fluminalis (Bivalvia: Corbiculacea) from the Pearl River, Peoples Republic of China. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 48(1):1-23

Byrne M, Phelps H, Church T, Adair V, Selvakumaraswamy P, Potts J, 2000. Reproduction and development of the freshwater clam Corbicula australis in southeast Australia. Hydrobiologia, 418(1-3):185-197.

Rajagopal S, Velde Gvan der, Bij de Vaate A, 2000. Reproductive biology of the Asiatic clams Corbicula fluminalis and Corbicula fluminea in the river Rhine. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 149(3):403-420.

Siripattrawan S, Park JK, Foighil DO, 2000. Two lineages of the introduced Asian freshwater clam Corbicula occur in North America. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 66(3):423-429.

Comments:
Despite the wide spectrum of reproductive strategies, from incubated forms in freshwater to free-swimming larvae in brackish water (Morton, 1982; Byrne et al., 2000; Rajagopal et al., 2000; Siripattrawan et al., 2000).
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
SolitaryX
GregariousXXX
Colonial


References (not structured):
Rajagopal S, Velde Gvan der, Bij de Vaate A, 2000. Reproductive biology of the Asiatic clams Corbicula fluminalis and Corbicula fluminea in the river Rhine. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 149(3):403-420.

Korniushin AV (2004) A revision of some Asian and African freshwater clams assigned to Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Corbiculidae), with a review of anatomical characters and reproductive features based on museum collections. Hydrobiologia, 529(1):255-270

Comments:
The reproductive strategies in C. fluminalis are controversial. C. fluminalis is now described as a facultative incubating species, due to the discovery of larvae incubating in the gills of museum specimens. In Europe, Rajagopal et al. (2000) reports C. fluminalis as non-incubatory, whereas Kinzelbach and collaborators (unpublished data in Korniushin, 2004) refer to the presence of intrabranchial larvae.
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous

References (not structured):
Korniushin AV (2004) A revision of some Asian and African freshwater clams assigned to Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Corbiculidae), with a review of anatomical characters and reproductive features based on museum collections. Hydrobiologia, 529(1):255-270
Reproductive type (?) Self-fertilization
Sexual

References:
Ituarte CF, 1994. Corbicula and Neocorbicula (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) in the Parana, Uruguay, and Rio de La Plata Basins. The Nautilus, 107(4):129-135.

Byrne M, Phelps H, Church T, Adair V, Selvakumaraswamy P, Potts J, 2000. Reproduction and development of the freshwater clam Corbicula australis in southeast Australia. Hydrobiologia, 418(1-3):185-197.

Glaubrecht M, Rintelen Tvon, Korniushin AV, 2003. Toward a systematic revision of brooding freshwater Corbiculidae in southeast Asia (Bivalvia, Veneroida): on shell morphology, anatomy and molecular phylogenetics of endemic taxa from islands in Indonesia. Malacologia, 45(1):1-40.

Korniushin AV, Glaubrecht M, 2003. Novel reproductive modes in freshwater clams: brooding and larval morphology in Southeast Asian taxa of Corbicula (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Corbiculidae). Acta Zoologica, 84(4):293-315.

Korniushin AV (2004) A revision of some Asian and African freshwater clams assigned to Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Corbiculidae), with a review of anatomical characters and reproductive features based on museum collections. Hydrobiologia, 529(1):255-270

Comments:
This genus exhibits a wide variety of reproductive strategies, involving sexually reproducing species with both sexes or hermaphrodites and several other unusual reproductive features, ranging from oviparity and ovoviviparity to euviviparity (Ituarte, 1994; Byrne et al., 2000; Glaubrecht et al., 2003; Korniushin and Glaubrecht, 2003).
Fertilization occurs inside the paleal cavity and larvae are incubated in the gills.
Siripattrawan et al. (2000) suggested that all freshwater species in the genus Corbicula should be considered clonal lineages. However, this does not apply in European populations since here morphotypes assigned to C. fluminea are meiotic and capable of hybridization with C. fluminalis (Pfenninger et al., 2002).
Developmental trait (?) Brooding
Planktotrophy

References:
Korniushin AV (2004) A revision of some Asian and African freshwater clams assigned to Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Corbiculidae), with a review of anatomical characters and reproductive features based on museum collections. Hydrobiologia, 529(1):255-270

Comments:
C. fluminalis is now described as a facultative incubating species, due to the discovery of larvae incubating in the gills of museum specimens.
Larvae can be densely packed in the interlamellar space or irregularly distributed (Korniushin, 2004). Released larvae might be smaller in comparison with other species (e.g. C. fluminea and C. australis), which have been recorded at 250 mm
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Photoautotroph
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – ActiveXX
Suspension feeder – Passive
Deposit feeder – Surface
Deposit feeder – Sub-surfaceX
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
PlanktotrophX
Chemoautotroph
Predator
Grazer


References (not structured):
Foe C, Knight A (1985) The effect of phytoplankton and suspended sediment on the growth of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia). Hydrobiologia, 127(2):105-116

Comments:
Corbiculidae are known to feed above the suspended particles.
However, individuals are also capable of pedal feeding using the cilia of the foot allowing them to collect organic material from the sediment
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
BurrowerXX
DrifterXX
Temporary attachmentX
Permanent attachment
Borer


References (not structured):
Ciutti F, Cappelletti C, 2009. First record of Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) in Lake Garda (Italy), living in sympatry with Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774). Journal of Limnology, 68(1):162-165.

Prezant RS, Chalermwat K, 1984. Flotation of the bivalve Corbicula fluminea as a means of dispersal. Science, 225(4669):1491-1493.

Comments:
The Corbiculidae are burrowing bivalves (Ciutti & Cappelletti, 2009).
Juveniles are capable of byssal attachment to floating vegetation (Prezant & Chalermwat, 1984).
Salinity tolerance range (?) Exact range: 0 - 50

References:
Morton, B. 1981. The biology and functional morphology of Mytilopsis sallei Bivalvia Dreissenacea fouling Visakhapatnam Harbor, Andhra Pradesh India.

Comments:
Freshwater species, tolerates salinities up to 50.
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Keystone species
OLD VALUE

References:
Karatayev AY, Padilla DK, Minchin D, Boltovskoy D, Burlakova LE (2007) Changes in global economies and trade: the potential spread of exotic freshwater bivalves. Biological Invasions, 9(2):161-180.
Prokopovich NP (1969) Deposition of clastic sediments by clams. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 39(3):891-901

Comments:
--/OLD VALUE/--
Ecosystem engineer

The feeding behaviour of Corbicula sp. can induce wide effects in the invaded ecosystem by enhancing light penetration that increases the macrophyte coverage.Corbicula can also increase sedimentation rates, at local scales, as they constantly remove the seston and deposit them as faeces and pseudofaeces. It is an important coupler between benthic and pelagic process because it uses organic matter from both the water column and sediments. Corbicula influence macrobenthos in the partitioning of nitrogen through their motion and excretion and play an important role on primary production by recycling nitrogenous material.
Corbicula sp. as ecosystem engineers will have an impact on habitat structure, biomineralization, oxygenation and benthic planktonic community structure. It can alter the nutrient cycle and the food web structure interfering with the community stability.
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Unknown
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Ballast waters
Biofouling
Tank sediments

References:
Prezant RS, Chalermwat K, 1984. Flotation of the bivalve Corbicula fluminea as a means of dispersal. Science, 225(4669):1491-1493.

Karatayev AY, Padilla DK, Minchin D, Boltovskoy D, Burlakova LE, 2007. Changes in global economies and trade: the potential spread of exotic freshwater bivalves. Biological Invasions, 9(2):161-180.

Comments:
All vectors include:

Aquacolture stock
Ship ballast water/sediment
Bait
Ship/boat hull fouling
Bulk freight/cargo
Soil, sand, gravel ecc.
Floating vegetation/debris
Machinery/equipment
(from www.cabi.org)
Molecular information Available

References (not structured):
NCBI - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=135721&lvl=0

Komaru A, Kawagishi T, Konishi K (1998) Cytological evidence of spontaneous androgenesis in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana Prime. Development Genes and Evolution, 208(1):46-50
Pfenninger M, Reinhardt F, Streit B, 2002. Evidence for cryptic hybridization between different evolutionary lineages of the invasive clam genus Corbicula (Veneroida, Bivalvia). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 15(5):818-829.
Hedtke SM, Stanger-Hall K, Baker RJ, Hillis DM, 2008. All-male asexuality: orign and maintenance of androgenesis in the Asian clam Corbicula. Evolution, 62(5):1119-1136.

Comments:
Corbicula sp. show a wide genetic variation related to polyploidy, or the processes of deletion, androgenesis and clonality, with mechanistically diverse genetic interactions amongst clones of Corbicula
Last update byAleksas Narščius, 2019-07-09