Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

Species Pachycordyle navis
Authority Millard, 1959

References (not structured):
Millard NA (1959) Hydrozoa from ships' hulls and experimental plates in Cape Town docks. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 45: 239-246
Family Bougainvilliidae  
Order Anthoathecatae   
Class Hydrozoa  
Phylum Cnidaria  
Synonym (?) Clavopsella navis
Clavopsella quadranularia
Cordylophora inkermanica
Pachycordyle inkermanica
Pachycordyle quadranularia
Rhizorhagium navis
Thieliana navis

References (not structured):
Millard NA (1959) Hydrozoa from ships' hulls and experimental plates in Cape Town docks. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 45: 239-246
Marfenin NN (1983) A new species of genus Cordylophora (Hydrozoa, Clavidae) from the Black Sea. Zool. Z., LXII, 11: 1732-1734 (In Russia)
Thiel H (1962) Clavopsella quadranularia nov. spec. (Clavopsellidae nov. farm.) ein neuer hydroidpolyp aus der Ostsee und seine phylogenetishe bedeutung. J. Murph., Oekol. Tiere. 51: 227-260
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) LME: 62. Black Sea
--> LME sub-region: Black Sea

References (not structured):
Haydar D (2010) What is natural? The scale and consequenses of marine bioinvasions in the North Atlatic ocean. Disertation, University of Grioningen, 184 pp

Comments:
Origin could be Black sea.
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
ZoobenthosX
Phytobenthos
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)
Sociability / Life stage (?) Unknown
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous

References (not structured):
Schuchert P (2004) Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae ( Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Families Oceanidae and Pachycordylidae.Revue suisse de Zoologie 111(2): 315-369

Comments:
Reproduction leads to reduction of hydranths.
Reproductive type (?) Asexual

References:
Olive PJ (2002) Reproduction and Life Cycles in Invertebrates. University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Comments:
In hydrozoans the dominant phase is the hydroid polyp, and free-living medusae are released for the purposes of sexual reproduction. Note that all the medusae produced by a scyphistoma or by a hydroid colony have the same genetic constitution.
Developmental trait (?) Not entered
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Photoautotroph
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – Active
Suspension feeder – PassiveX
Deposit feeder – Surface
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
Planktotroph
Chemoautotroph
Predator
Grazer


References (not structured):
Marfenin NN (1997) Adaptation capabilities of marine modular organisms. Hydrobiologia 355: 153-158

Comments:
In poorly integrated species such as
colonies of Cordylophora inkermanica the discrepancy between growth and the
amount of received food causes an almost simultaneous rapid reabsorbtion of all the hydranths.
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
Burrower
Drifter
Temporary attachment
Permanent attachmentX
Borer


References (not structured):
Schuchert P (2007) The Europien athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filitera Part 2. Revue suisse de Zoologie 114(2): 195-396

Comments:
Shallow water species, growing on wooden floats and Fucus. Light induces spawning.
Salinity tolerance range (?) Venice system:
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]

References:
Anonymus (1997) Alien Species in the Marine Environment. Status and National Activities in the OSPARCOM Convention Area. Report prepared by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for IMPACT (97/7/1-E): 32 pp
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Not entered
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not entered
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Not entered
Molecular information Not entered
Created byRomualda Chuševė, 2011-10-26
Last update byHenn Ojaveer, 2015-06-05