Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

Species Mnemiopsis leidyi
Authority A. Agassiz, 1865
Family Mnemiidae  
Order Lobata  
Class Tentaculata  
Phylum Ctenophora  
Synonym (?) Mnemiopsis gardeni (Agassiz L, 1860)
Mnemiopsis mccradyi (Mayer, 1900)

References (not structured):
Costello J, Mianzan H, Shiganova T (2005) Mnemiopsis leidyi (comb jelly) In: Global Invasive Species Database. Available from: http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=95&fr=1&sts;= Accesed 31 December 2011
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Ocean: Atlantic
--> Ocean region: NW Atlantic
--> Ocean region: SW Atlantic
--> Ocean region: W Tropical Atlantic

References (not structured):
Purcell JE, Shiganova TA, Decker MB, Houde ED (2001) The ctenophore Mnemiopsis in native and exotic habitats: U.S. estuaries versus the Black Sea basin. Hydrobiologia 451: 145-176

Comments:
The native habitats of the ctenophore, mnemiopsis, are temperate to subtropical estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North and South America, where it is found in an extremely wide range of environmental conditions (winter low and summer high temperatures of 2 and 32 ◦C, respectively, and salinities of <2–38).
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
Zoobenthos
Phytobenthos
ZooplanktonXXXX
Phytoplankton
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)


References (not structured):
Costello J et al (2001)
Mnemiopsis leidyi (comb jelly): The Global invasive species database:
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=95&fr=1&sts;=&lang=EN

Comments:
Totally planktonic life history; early tentaculate larvae resembling Cydippida ctenophores but metamorphoses into the mature lobate form. No current evidence of resting stages.
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
SolitaryXXXX
Gregarious
Colonial


Comments:
comb jelly; ctenophore - biradially symmetrical hermaphroditic solitary marine animals resembling jellyfishes having for locomotion eight rows of cilia arranged like teeth in a comb.
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous

References (not structured):
Planka HD (1974) Ctenophora. Reproduction of marine invertebrates. Eds. Glese A.C. Pearse J.S. V.1.p.201-265
Reeve MR, Walter MA (1976) A large-scale experiment on the growth and predation potencial of ctenophore populations.p.187-199. In G.O.Mackie (ed.). Coelenterate ecology and behavior. Plenum.

Comments:
As most planktonic ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi is a simultaneous hermaphrodite and capable of self fertilization, and thus viable offspring can be produced from a single adult.
Reproductive type (?) Self-fertilization

References:
Planka HD (1974) Ctenophora. Reproduction of marine invertebrates. Eds. Glese A.C. Pearse J.S. V.1.p.201-265
Reeve MR, Walter MA (1976) A large-scale experiment on the growth and predation potencial of ctenophore populations.p.187-199. In G.O.Mackie (ed.). Coelenterate ecology and behavior. Plenum.

Comments:
As most planktonic ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi is a simultaneous hermaphrodite and capable of self fertilization, and thus viable offspring can be produced from a single adult. According to Shiganova 2002 (cited in Postel, L., Kube, S., Berrie, C. 2008. A matter of time and temperature: The spread of Mnemiopsis leidyi. ICES Insight, 45. 16-19) each adult can in average produce 600-1000 eggs per day, maximum is more than 7000 eggs per day.
Developmental trait (?) Planktotrophy
Spawning

References:
Costello J et al (2001)
Mnemiopsis leidyi (comb jelly): The Global invasive species database:
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=95&fr=1&sts;=&lang=EN

Comments:
Mnemiopsis leidyi is a free-spawning, simultaneous hermaphrodite capable of self-fertilization. The specimens 5-7 cm long have 100-140 ctenes in their subsaggital rows spreading along the lobe surfaces, while in the shorter subtentacular rows their numbers are less -between 55-90. Such a specimen carries some 150 eggs along each meridianal canal and over 100 of them - in each auricular canal.
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Photoautotroph
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – Active
Suspension feeder – Passive
Deposit feeder – Surface
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
PlanktotrophXXX
Chemoautotroph
PredatorXXX
Grazer


References (not structured):
Tzikhon-Lukanina E A, Reznichenko OG, Lukasheva TA (1991) Quantitative aspects of feeding in the Black Sea ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Oceanology 31: 272-276
The Global invasive species database:
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=95&fr=1&sts;=&lang=EN;

Finenko GA, Abolmasova GI, Romanova ZA (1995) Intensity of the nutrition, respiration and growth of Mnemiopsis mccradyi in relation to grazing conditions. Biologia Morya 21: 315-320 (in Russian)

Comments:
The food spectrum of Mnemiopsis varies depending on season, place and time of the day. In summer it feeds mainly with the planktonic crustaceans: small specimens prefere cladocerans, while large the copepods together with fish eggs and larvae. The mean size of preys varies between 0.75 and 1 mm. The ctenophore population inhabiting coastal waters have more variable food spectrum on comparison with that in the open sea . It includes more copepods and fish eggs, fish and invertebrate larvae. Among the latter mussel veligers are usually predominate.
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
Burrower
DrifterXXXX
Temporary attachment
Permanent attachment
Borer


References (not structured):
Coonfield BR (1934) Coordination and movement of the swimming-plates of Mnemiopsis leidyi, Agassiz. Biol Bull 66(1): 10-21

Comments:
This animal moves along in the water just below
the surface with its oral end in advance, propelling itself by the successive movements of paddle plates which beat in an aboral direction.
Each paddle plate consists of several very long cilia fused and beating as a unit.
Salinity tolerance range (?) Exact range: 2 - 32

References:
Purcell JE, Shiganova TA, Decker MB, Houde ED (2001) The ctenophore Mnemiopsis in native and exotic habitats: U.S. estuaries versus the Black Sea basin. Hydrobiologia 451: 145-176
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Keystone species

References:
Costello J, Mianzan H, Shiganova T (2005) Mnemiopsis leidyi (comb jelly) In: Global Invasive Species Database. Available from: http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=95&fr=1&sts;= Accesed 31 December
2011

Comments:
Mnemiopsis leidyi is a major zooplankton predator and is associated with fishery crashes (Costello, 2001). A carnivorous predator on edible zooplankton (including meroplankton), pelagic fish eggs and larvae, M. leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. In the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, the zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes.
The pelagic ecosystem of the Black Sea was degraded, manifesting as sharply decreased biodiversity, abundance, and biomass of the main components of the pelagic ecosystem-zooplankton (Dumont and Shiganova). Fish stocks in the Black Sea and Sea of Azov have suffered due to predation on eggs and larval stages of food supplies (Shiganova 2003). Effects on the ecosystem in the Caspian Sea were faster and stronger than in the Black Sea. In 2001, repercussions were felt at all trophic levels, including that of the top predator, the Caspian seal (Dumont and Shiganova).

A cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decrease in zooplankton stock and collapsing planktivorous fish, to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins. Similar effects occured at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, which was released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara. Effects on Mediterranean food webs have, so far, remained insignificant. Salinity is probably supraoptimal there, and several predators prevent M.leidyi from reaching outbreak levels.
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not relevant
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Ballast waters

References:
Reusch et al 2010. Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world´s most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora). Molecular Ecology
Molecular information Available

References (not structured):
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy/?term=Mnemiopsis leidyi

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/?term=Mnemiopsis leidyi

BOLD (http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=493974)

Reusch et al 2010. Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world´s most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora). Molecualr Ecology

Comments:
PubMed Search results on the species (26-1-2012).
The Baltic invasion originates from northern America, the Black Sea invasion from southern America.
Last update byAnastasija Zaiko, 2015-02-27