Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

 
Species Sargassum muticum [WoRMS]

References:
Fensholt DE (1955)An emendation of the genus Cystophyllum (Fucales). American Journal of Botany 42: 305-322
Authority (Yendo) Fensholt, 1955

References (not structured):
Yendo K (1907) The Fucaceae of Japan. Journal of the College of Science, Tokyo Imperial University 21 (Article 12): 1-174, folded table, pls I- XVIII plates
Fensholt DE (1955) An emendation of the genus Cystophyllum (Fucales). American Journal of Botany 42: 305-322
Family Sargassaceae  
Order Fucales  
Class Phaeophyceae  
Phylum Ochrophyta  
Synonym (?) Sargassum kjellmanianum f. muticum (Yendo)

References (not structured):
Yendo K (1907) The Fucaceae of Japan. Journal of the College of Science, Tokyo Imperial University 21 (Article 12): 1-174, folded table, pls I- XVIII plates
Fensholt DE (1955) An emendation of the genus Cystophyllum (Fucales). American Journal of Botany 42: 305-322

Comments:
Yendo (1907) was the first who described Sargassum muticum in Japan. It was firstly recorded as S. kjellmanianum forma muticum. On the basis of the difference in reproductive structure (monoecious or dioecious), Fensholt (1955) proposed the new corrected name - Sargassum muticum. The species S. kjellmanianum (Yendo) is now renamed S. miyabei (Yendo) but the old name is still in use, and thus may include both species, S.muticum and S.miyabei.
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Ocean: Pacific
--> Ocean region: NW Pacific

References (not structured):
Yendo K (1907) The Fucaceae of Japan. Journal of the College of Science, Tokyo Imperial University 21 (Article 12): 102-106, plate XV, fig. 1-4.
Critchley AT, Farnham WF, Yoshida T, Norton TA (1990) A bibliography of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt (Fucales; Sargassaceae). Botanica marina 33: 551-562

Comments:
Sargassum muticum is native to the waters around Japan and the North West Pacific.
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
Zoobenthos
PhytobenthosXXX
Zooplankton
PhytoplanktonX
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)


References (not structured):
Deysher LE, Norton TA (1982) Dispersal and colonization in Sargassum muticum. J Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 56: 179-195.
Norton TA (1980) Sink, swim or stick: the fate of Sargassum muticum poropagules. British Phycol. J. 15: 197-198

Comments:
The preferred habitat of Sargassum muticum is sheltered hard bottoms, but it may also attach to hard substrates on soft bottoms, such as stones or shells.
Germlings settle only a few meters from the parent plant and have a short planktonic existence.
Germlings of S.muticum stick almost immediately on contact with the substratum by the rhizoids and this results in them adhering to the first solid surface encountered, even when it is unsuitable for their subsequent development.
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Solitary
GregariousXX
Colonial


References (not structured):
Curiel D, Bellemo G, Marzocchi M, Scattolin M, Parisi G (1998) Distribution of introduced Japanese macroalgae Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyta) and Antithamnion pectinatum (Rhodophyta) in the Lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia 385: 17-22

Comments:
This alga forms thick colonies on piers, breakwaters and wharves with 2-10 plants per square meter. When the plants reach their maximum size (in spring), they form thicker settlements with density of up to 70-80 plants per square meter.
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous
Reproductive type (?) Asexual
Self-fertilization
Sexual

References:
Stæhr PA, Pedersen MF, Thomsen MS, Wernberg T, Krause-Jensen D (2000) Invasion of Sargassum muticum in Limfjorden (Denmark) and its possible impact on the indigenous macroalgal community. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Series 207: 79-88

Comments:
Sargassum muticum is monoecious, self-fertile and highly fecund and posesses vesicles that allow the annually produced fronds to drift when broken off. Although these drifting fronds do not reattach, they are able to survive and and become fertile as they drift.
Developmental trait (?) Unknown
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
PhotoautotrophXX
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – Active
Suspension feeder – Passive
Deposit feeder – Surface
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
Planktotroph
Chemoautotroph
Predator
Grazer
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
Burrower
DrifterXXXX
Temporary attachment
Permanent attachmentXX
Borer


References (not structured):
Stæhr PA, Pedersen MF, Thomsen MS, Wernberg T, Krause-Jensen D (2000) Invasion of Sargassum muticum in Limfjorden (Denmark) and its possible impact on the indigenous macroalgal community. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Series 207: 79-88
Deysher LE, Norton TA (1982) Dispersal and colonization in Sargassum muticum. J Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 56: 179-195

Comments:
Sargassum muticum permanently attaches by a disc-shaped holdfast to rocks, stones, pebbles, artificial substrates, also to shells and occasionally to seaweeds.
S. muticum has the ability to reproduce from drifting fertile individuals or branches, which because of the buoyancy provided by the air vesicles are able to drift long distances. Although these drifting fronds do not reattach, they are able to survive and and become fertile as they drift.
The small embryos remain on reproductive organs, receptacles, until rhizoids are formed, and after detaching they sink and reattach immediately to any surface encountered and develop into a new plant.
Salinity tolerance range (?) Venice system:
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]

References:
Paavola M, Olenin S, Leppäkoski E (2005) Are invasive species most successful in habitats of low native species richness across European brackish water seas? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64 (2005) 738-750
Weidema IR (2000) Introduced species in the nordic countries. Nord 2000: 13 : 242p

Comments:
Salinity of 34 per mile is considered optimal for growth.
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Autogenic ecosystem engineers

References:
Stæhr PA, Pedersen MF, Thomsen MS, Wernberg T, Krause-Jensen D (2000) Invasion of Sargassum muticum in Limfjorden (Denmark) and its possible impact on the indigenous macroalgal community. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Series 207: 79-88
Viejo RM (1997) The effects of colonization by Sargassum muticum on tidepool macroalgal assemblages. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 77: 325-340
Cosson J (1999)On the progressive disappearance of Laminaria digitata on the coasts of Calvados (France). Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 35-42
Tweedley JR, Jackson EL, Attrill MJ (2008) Zostera marina seagrass beds enhance the attachment of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum in soft sediments. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Series 354: 305-309

Comments:
Ecosystem engineer
Perennial habitat former

S.muticum is a strong competitor with indigenous species for space and light through its fast growth and regeneration pattern, high fecundity and biomass, and high densities which prevent settlement and development of other algae.
The expansion of S.muticum in Limfjorden (Denmark) has lead to reductions in slow-growing seaweeds, Laminaria saccharina, Codium fragile, Halidrys siliquosa, Fucus vesiculosus.
Leathery and foliose algae in tidepools along the Atlantic coast of northern Spain have been negatively affected through competition with S.muticum.
Cosson (1999) reported a reduction in coverage of Laminaria digitata in Lower Normandy (France) by S.muticum.
S. muticum is able to successfully colonize soft sediments and, furthermore, the presence of Zostera marina may aid attachment, trapping drifting fragments and allowing viable algae to settle on the seagrass matrix in an otherwise unfavorable environment.
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not relevant

Comments:
There is no information available regarding toxicity of S.muticum. Rotting algae washed ashore onto beaches may cause a strong odour which is considered as nuisance. Dense colonies of species may prevent use of waters for swimming, boating and fishing.
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Biofouling

References:
Wallentinus I (1999) Exotics across the ocean. University of Kiel, Berlin

Comments:
Most introduced populations originate from imports of oysters and mussels, dispersing later as drifting branches. In the Netherlands it was proven that imported oysters can act as a vector for the species and there is risk of storage of live oysters for consumption in basins at the seaside
Molecular information Available

Zhao F, Liu F, Liu J, Ang Jr PO, Duan D (2008) Genetic structure analysis of natural Sargassum muticum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) populations using RAPD and ISSR markers. J. Appl. Phycol. 20: 191-198
Cheang CC, Chu KH, Fujita D, Yoshida G, Hiraoka M, Critchley A, Choi H.G, Duan D, Serisawa Y, Ang Jr PO (2010) Low genetic variability of Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae) revealed by a global analysis of native and introduced populations. J Phycology 46(6): 1063-1074
Rousseau F, Leclerc M-C, de Reviers B(1997) Molecular phylogeny of European Fucales (Phaeophyceae) based on partial large-subunit rDNA sequence comparisons. Phycologia 36(6) 438-446
Yoon W-J, Ham YM, Lee WJ, Lee NH, Hyun CG(2010) Brown alga Sargassum muticum inhibits proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2expression in macrofage RAW 264.7 cells. Turk. J. Biol. 34: 25-34
Last update byAnna Occhipinti, 2014-03-26