Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.


Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.


References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:

Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329

Article by DOI

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086

South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London

Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Accessed 26 June 2007

Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.


The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]


Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.


Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).


Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

Species Ruditapes philippinarum [WoRMS]
Authority (Adams & Reeve, 1850)
Family Veneridae  
Order Venerida  
Class Bivalvia  
Phylum Mollusca  
Synonym (?) Tapes (Ruditapes) philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850)
Tapes denticulatus (Sowerby, 1852)
Tapes ducalis (Römer, 1870)
Tapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850)
Tapes semidecussatum (Reeve, 1864)
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Country: China
--> LME: 36. South China Sea
--> LME: 47. East China Sea
Country: Japan
--> LME: 47. East China Sea
--> LME: 49. Kuroshio Current
--> LME: 52. Sea of Okhotsk
Country: Philippines
--> LME: 36. South China Sea
Country: China
--> LME: 48. Yellow Sea; LME sub-region: Yellow Sea
Country: Japan
--> LME: 50. Sea of Japan / East Sea; LME sub-region: Sea of Japan

References (not structured):
NOBANIS - European Network on Invasive Species

Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Symbiont (non parasitic)

References (not structured):
Jones GG, Sanford CL, Jones BL (1993) Manila Clams: Hatchery and Nursery Methods. Innovative Aquaculture Products Ltd. Skerry Bay Lasqueti Island B.C. Canada
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage

References (not structured):
Jones GG, Sanford CL, Jones BL (1993) Manila Clams: Hatchery and Nursery Methods. Innovative Aquaculture Products Ltd. Skerry Bay Lasqueti Island B.C. Canada
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous

References (not structured):
Ponurovsky SK, Yakovlev Yu M (1992) The reproductive biology of the japanese littleneck, Tapes Philippinarum. Journal of Shellfish Research, Vol. 11, No. 2, 265-277
Reproductive type (?) Sexual

Jones GG, Sanford CL, Jones BL (1993) Manila Clams: Hatchery and Nursery Methods. Innovative Aquaculture Products Ltd. Skerry Bay Lasqueti Island B.C. Canada

The sexes are separate and sexual maturity is generally attained when the clams are about 20 mm.
Developmental trait (?) Planktotrophy

Jones GG, Sanford CL, Jones BL (1993) Manila Clams: Hatchery and Nursery Methods. Innovative Aquaculture Products Ltd. Skerry Bay Lasqueti Island B.C. Canada
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Suspension feeder – ActiveXX
Suspension feeder – Passive
Deposit feeder – SurfaceXX
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Symbiont contribution

References (not structured):
Jones GG, Sanford CL, Jones BL (1993) Manila Clams: Hatchery and Nursery Methods. Innovative Aquaculture Products Ltd. Skerry Bay Lasqueti Island B.C. Canada
Breber P (2002) Introduction and acclimatisation of the Pacific carpet clam Tapes philippinarum, to Italian waters. In: Invasive aquatic species of Europe. Distribution, impacts and management [ed. by Leppakoski, E. \Gollasch, S. \Olenin, S.]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer, 120-126

Breber (2002) observed that while larval and juvenile Manila clams take their diatom diet from the plankton, adults appear to be dependent on benthic diatoms which grow as a film on the sediment. Nevertheless clams can be maintained in the laboratory on the basis of suspension feeding.
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Temporary attachment
Permanent attachment

References (not structured):
Jones GG, Sanford CL, Jones BL (1993_ Manila Clams: Hatchery and Nursery Methods. Innovative Aquaculture Products Ltd. Skerry Bay Lasqueti Island B.C. Canada
Salinity tolerance range (?) Exact range: 16 - 36

Kim W.S., Huh H.T., Huh S.H., Lee T.W., 2001. Effects of salinity on endogenous rhythm of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia: Veneridae). Marine Biology. 138:157-162

It is widley distributed in intertidal zones with a 16-36 salinity range. The clam cannot maintain normal metabolic activity in salinities lower than 15
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Autogenic ecosystem engineers

Bartoli M, Nizzoli D, Viaroli P, Turolla E, Castaldelli G, Fano EA, Rossi R (2001) Impact of Tapes philippinarum farming on nutrient dynamics and benthic respiration in the Sacca di Goro. Hydrobiologia, 455:203-212
CIESM (2003) Entry for Ruditapes philippinarum. Atlas of exotic molluscs in the Mediterranean 2003.
Pranovi F, Ponte Fda, Raicevich S, Giovanardi O (2004) A multidisciplinary study of the immediate effects of mechanical clam harvesting in the Venice Lagoon. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 61(1):43-52
Sorokin, Giovanardi O, Pranovi F, Sorokin PI (1999) Need for restricting bivalve culture in the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia, 400:141-148
Varadi L, Szucs I, Pekar F, Blokhin S, Csavas I (2001) Aquaculture development trends in Europe. In: Subasinghe RP, Bueno P, Phillips MJ, Hough C, McGladdery SE, Arthur JR, eds. Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. Technical Proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok, Thailand, 20-25 February 2000. NACA, Bangkok and FAO, Rome. 397-416

Introduced Ruditapes philippinarum have become naturalized in many areas of Europe, competing with native R. decussatus, limiting their populations and replacing them in some cases (CIESM, 2003). The regional government of Galicia (Spain) has banned the use of Manila clam seed for semi-extensive use on beaches, and several authorities are actively promoting the use of the native clam (Varadi et al., 2000).
At high densities Manila clams can affect nutrient dynamics (Bartoli et al., 2001) and alter the abundance of zooplankton, a phenomenon that has led to calls to restrict cultivation in the Venice lagoon (Sorokin et al., 1999). In the same location Pranovi et al. (2006) has estimated the total filtration capacity of the macrobenthos to have been doubled as a result of the Manila clam introduction, with a consequent altering of ecosystem function in terms of stronger benthic-pelagic coupling and reduced resilience.
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not entered
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Known human health impact? Not entered
Known economic impact? Not entered
Known measurable environmental impact? Not entered
Included in the Target Species list? Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Unknown

species intentionally introduced for culture
Molecular information Available

GENBANK /wwwtax.cgi?name=Ruditapes philippinarum
Gosling EM, Nolan A (1989) Triploidy induction by thermal shock in the Manila clam, Tapes semidecussatus. Aquaculture, 78(3-4):223-228
Utting S (1995) Triploidy in the manila clam (Tapes philippinarum). Environmental impacts of aquatic biotechnology, 114-119

Wild Manila clam individuals are diploid with a chromosome complement of 2n=38 (Gosling and Nolan, 1989). Experiments on polyploidy with a view to impeding gametogenesis (so as to retain meat quality by preventing the diversion of food reserves into gonad and gamete development) have involved inducing triploidy (3n=57). Inducing triploidy by heat shock has also been considered as a possible method of sterilization allowing farming without the risk of naturalisation. However it appears that achieving 100% induced triploidy is difficult and in any event some reproductive viability can be retained in triploid clams. Tetraploid embryos and larvae have been produced but never survive (Utting, 1995).
Last update byAnna Occhipinti, 2014-04-16