Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

Species Victorella pavida [WoRMS]
Authority Saville-Kent, 1870
Family Victorellidae  
Order Ctenostomatida  
Class Gymnolaemata  
Phylum Bryozoa  
Synonym (?)
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Country: India

References (not structured):
Carlton J.T., 1979 – History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America, PhD dissertation, University of California Davis

Cohen A.N. & Carlton J.T., 1995 – Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in a United States Estuary: A Case Study of the Biological Invasion of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. A Report for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. and The National Sea Grant College Program Connecticut Sea Grant Program. 272 pp.

Leppakoski E, Olenin S (2000) Non-native species and rates of spread: lessons from the brackish Baltic Sea. Biological Invasions, 2: 151-163

Comments:
Reviewing its global distribution, Carlton (1979) suggested that it was native to the Indian Ocean and introduced via hull fouling to Europe, eastern North America, Japan and eastern South America (Carlton 1979, Cohen & Carlton, 1995).
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
ZoobenthosX
Phytobenthos
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
SolitaryX
Gregarious
ColonialXX


References (not structured):
Carter, M. C. & Jackson A., 2007 – Basic information for Victorella pavida (Trembling sea mat) – Marine Life Information Network for Britain & Ireland. Marine Biological Association. Retrieved 2008-06-24

Carter MC, Bishop, JDD, Evans NJ, Wood A (2010) Environmental influences on the formation and germination of hibernacula in the brackish-water bryozoan Victorella pavida Saville Kent, 1870 (Ctenostomata: Victorellidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Volume 383, Issue 2, 15 Pages 89-95.

Comments:
Colonies may consist of dense clumps or chains of zooids. Individual zooids up to 1 mm in size. Attached zooids posses a cylindrical base with a tubular extension (peristome).Eight tentacles.
The sphincter is situated at the base of the gut. Gizzard absent.
Produces dark brown/black hibernacula (dormant resting buds)(Carter & Jackson 2007).

https://www.bryozoans.nl/pictures/en/victorella_pavida.html
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous

References (not structured):
Carter M, Angus J (2007) Victorella pavida. Trembling sea mat. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Accesed 29 November 2011. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/reproduction.php?speciesID=4576>
Reproductive type (?) Asexual
Self-fertilization
Sexual

References:
Carter, M. C., 2004 - The biology and genetic diversity of the trembling sea mat Victorella pavida (Bryozoa: Ctenostomata) from Swanpool, Falmouth - M.Res Thesis, University of Plymouth.

Carter, M. C. & Jackson A., 2007 – Basic information for Victorella pavida (Trembling sea mat) – Marine Life Information Network for Britain & Ireland. Marine Biological Association. Retrieved 2008-06-24

Carter MC, Bishop JDD, Evans NJ, Wood A (2010) Environmental influences on the formation and germination of hibernacula in the brackish-water bryozoan Victorella pavida Saville Kent, 1870 (Ctenostomata: Victorellidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Volume 383, Issue 2, 15. Pages 89-95

Comments:
Protandrous hermaphrodite (M. Carter & A.Jackson, 2007). New colonies emerge from dormancy during the spring and when temperatures are approximately 13°C.Embryos released through special intertentacular organ.
By November and the onset of winter, zooids begin to degenerate and eventually only the asexually produced dormant resting bodies (hibernacula) remain. The hibernacula germinate again in the spring and the cycle begins again (Carter, 2004).
Developmental trait (?) Brooding
Lecithotrophy
Resting stages

References:
Carter, M. C. & Jackson A., 2007 – Basic information for Victorella pavida (Trembling sea mat) – Marine Life Information Network for Britain & Ireland. Marine Biological Association. Retrieved 2008-06-24
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Photoautotroph
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – ActiveXX
Suspension feeder – Passive
Deposit feeder – Surface
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
Planktotroph
Chemoautotroph
Predator
Grazer


References (not structured):
Poirrier MA, Mulino M (1977) Effects of environmental factors on the distribution and morphology of Victorella pavida (Ectoprocta) in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and
vicinity. Chesapeake Sci. 18: 347-352
Ravindranatha Menon N, Balakrishnan Nair N (1972) On the nature of tolerance to salinity in two euryhaline intertidal bryozoans Victorella pavida Kent and Electra crustulenta Pallas. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., Part B. Vol. 38: 414-429
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
Burrower
DrifterX
Temporary attachment
Permanent attachmentXX
Borer


References (not structured):
Carter MC, Bishop JDD, Evans NJ, Wood A (2010) Environmental influences on the formation and germination of hibernacula in the brackish-water bryozoan Victorella pavida Saville Kent, 1870 (Ctenostomata: Victorellidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Volume 383, Issue 2, 15. Pages 89-95
Carter M, Angus J (2007). Victorella pavida. Trembling sea mat. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Accesed 29 November 2011. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/generalbiology.php?speciesID=4576>

Comments:
Grows in shallow water on submerged stones, plants and wood as well as artificial substrata such as concrete.
Salinity tolerance range (?) Exact range: 1 - 35

References:
Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (1981) Briozoi Lagunari. Guide per il riconoscimento delle specie animali delle acque lagunari e costiere italiane, AQ/1/126. CNR.

Comments:
The preferred salinity range is 2-10
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Not entered
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not relevant
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Biofouling

References:
Wasson K, Holle B, Toft J, Ruiz G(2000) Detecting invasions of marine organisms: kamptozoan case histories. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Biological Invasions 2: 59–74

Comments:
This cosmopolitan bryozoan has been reported from the bottoms of vessels.
Molecular information Not entered
Last update byMaiju Lehtiniemi, 2020-07-06