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Elodea canadensis

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First observed: 1870 ** (Luther 1979)
Taxon: Hydrocharitacea
Origin: North America
Vector of introduction: ornamental
Distribution in the Baltic Sea: Gulf of Bothnia
Species status: established
Salinity in native habitats: Limnetic (Luther 1951)
Salinity in the Baltic Sea: Limnetic (Leppakoski, Olenin 2000; Weidema 2000)
Ecofunctional group: macrophytes
Ecological impact: benthic-pelagic interaction (Roerslett et al. 1984; Weidema 2000; Karjalainen et al. 2001; Josefsson, Andersson 2001), bioacummulation (Mal et al. 2002; Cecal et al. 2002; Bolsunovskii et al. 2002; Kahkonen et al. 1998), community dominance (Carlton, Scanlon 1985; Weidema 2000; Cohen, Carlton 1995; Riis et al. 2000; Slynko et al. 2002), competition (Wallentinus 2002), food-prey (Weidema 2000), habitat change (De Winton et al. 1996; Roerslett et al. 1986; Roerslett et al. 1984; Weidema 2000; Cohen, Carlton 1995)
Impact on uses/resources: -

Bolsunovskii A.I., Ermakov A.I., Burger M., Degermendzhi A.G., Sobolev A.I. 2002. Accumulation of industrial radionuclides by the Yenisei River aquatic plants in the area affected by the activity of the mining and chemical plant. Radiats Biol Radioecol, 42(2): 194-199.

Carlton J.T., Scanlon J.A. 1985. Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Botanica Marina, 28: 155-165.

Cecal A., Popa K., Caraus I., Potoroaca V. 2002. Bioaccumulation of 65Zn2+ ions by some hydrophytic plants. Isotopes Environ Health Stud., 38(1): 33-7.

Cohen A.N., Carlton J.T. 1995. Nonindigenous aquatic species in a U.S. estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and delta. A Report for the US fish and wildlife service, Washington D.C. and the national Sea Grant college program Connecticut Sea Grant, (NOAA Grant Number NA36RG0467).

De Winton M.D., Clayton J.S. 1996. The impact of invasive submerged weed species on seed banks in lake sediments. Aquatic Botany, 53(1-2): 31-45.

Josefsson M., Andersson B. 2001. The Environmental Consequences of Alien Species in the Swedish Lakes Malaren, Hjalmaren, Vanern and Vattern. Ambio, 30(8): 514-521.

Kahkonen M.A., Pantsar-Kallio M., Manninen P.K.G. 1998. Analysing heavy metal concentrations in the different parts of Elodea canadensis and surface sediment with pca in two boreal lakes in Southern Finland. Chemosphere, 35(11): 2645-2656.

Karjalainen H., Stefansdottir G., Tuominen L., Kairesalo T. 2001. Do submersed plants enhance microbial activity in sediment? Aquatic Botany, 69(1): 1-13.

Leppakoski E., S. Olenin 2000. Non-native species and rates of spread: lessons from the brackish Baltic Sea. Biological Invasions, 2: 151-163.

Luther H. 1951. Verbreitung und Okologie der hoheren Wasserpflanzen im Brackwasser der Ekenas-Gegend in Sudfinnland. II. Spezieller Teil. Acta Bot. Fenn. 50: 1-370.

Luther H. 1979. Chara connivens in the Baltic Sea area. Ann. Bot. Fennici, 16: 141-150.

Mal T.K. , Adorjan P., Corbett A.L. 2002. Effect of copper on growth of an aquatic macrophyte, Elodea canadensis. Environmental Pollution, 120(2): 307-311.

Riis T., Sand-Jensen K., Vestergaard O. 2000. Plant communities in lowland Danish streams: species composition and environmental factors. Aquatic Botany, 66(4): 255-272.

Roerslett B., Berge D., Johansen S.W. 1984. Mass invasion of Elodea canadensis in a mesotrophic, South Norwegian lake - impact on water quality. Proceedings of the Congres of International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, 22 (2): 2920-2926.

Roerslett B., Berge D., Johansen S.W. 1986. Lake enrichment by submersed macrophytes: A Norwegian whole-lake experience with Elodea canadensis. Aquatic Botany, 26 (3-4): 325-340

Slynko Yu.V., Koreneva L.G., Rivier I.K., Papchenkov V.G., Scherbina G.H., Orlova M.I., Therriault Th.W. 2002. The Caspian-Volga-Baltic invasion corridor. In: Leppakoski E., Gollasch S. and Olenin S.(eds), Invasive Aquatic species of Europe - distribution impacts and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London: 399-411.

Wallentinus I. 2002. Introduced marine algae and vascular plants in European aquatic environments. In: Leppakoski E., Gollasch S. and Olenin S.(eds), Invasive Aquatic species of Europe - distribution impacts and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London: 27-52.

Weidema I.R. 2000. Introduced species in the nordic countries, Nord, 13 : 242pp.

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The mark ** next to the year means, that only decade (sometimes even century) is known.