Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

Species Arcuatula senhousia [WoRMS]
Authority (Benson, 1842)
Family Mytilidae  
Order Mytilida  
Class Bivalvia  
Phylum Mollusca  
Synonym (?)
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Ocean: Pacific

References (not structured):
Origin is unclear

Comments:
Pacific W
Western Pacific from Siberia to Singapore
North West Pacific Ocean
SW Pacific
SW Pacific
SW Pacific
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
ZoobenthosXX
Phytobenthos
ZooplanktonXX
Phytoplankton
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
SolitaryX
GregariousX
Colonial


References (not structured):
Willan, R. C. (1987). The mussel Musculista senhousia in Australasia; another aggressive alien highlights the need for quarantine at ports. Bulletin of marine science, 41(2), 475-489.

Comments:
The species is mainly gregarious: individuals tend to form mats on the bottom: they live in aggregations formed from individuals entangled together within conjoined byssal bags.

Individual speciemens can also occasionally be found on artificial hard bottoms (A Marchini, personal observation).
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous
Reproductive type (?) Sexual

References:
Mistri M (2002) Ecological Characteristics of the Invasive Asian Date Mussel,
Musculista senhousia,in the Sacca di Goro (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Estuaries 25: 431–440

Comments:
In the Sacca di Goro (Italy, North Adriatic Sea), the species was strictly gonochoric, and sex-ratio was approximately 1:1
Developmental trait (?) Spawning

References:
Mistri M (2002) Ecological Characteristics of the Invasive Asian Date Mussel, Musculista senhousia,in the Sacca di Goro (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Estuaries 25: 431–440
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Photoautotroph
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – Active
Suspension feeder – PassiveXX
Deposit feeder – Surface
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
Planktotroph
Chemoautotroph
Predator
Grazer


References (not structured):
Inoue, T., Yamamuro, M., 2000. Respiration and ingestion rates of the filter-feeding bivalve Musculista senhousia: implications for water-quality control. Journal of Marine Systems 26, 183 – 192

Comments:
M. senhousia is a filter-feeding bivalve which selectively ingests particular types of phytoplankton
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
Burrower
DrifterX
Temporary attachmentXX
Permanent attachment
Borer
Salinity tolerance range (?) Exact range: 17 - 37

References:
http://www.exoticsguide.org/musculista_senhousia

Comments:
in California
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Allogenic ecosystem engineers

References:
Mistri M (2002) Ecological Characteristics of the Invasive Asian Date Mussel,
Musculista senhousia,in the Sacca di Goro (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Estuaries 25: 431–440

and references therein

Comments:
It lives in subtidal soft sediments, forming byssal mats, which are typically raised a few millimeters relative to ambient sediments. Natural mussel mats alter hydrodynamic, sedimentary, and microtopographic features on the bottom, as well as active and passive responses of larvae, juveniles, and adults of other species in the community. The presence of extensive mussel mats creates social and economic impacts, since growth and survival of infaunal clams may be reduced.
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not entered
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Ballast waters
Tank sediments

References:
Willan, R. C. (1987). The mussel Musculista senhousia in Australasia; another aggressive alien highlights the need for quarantine at ports. Bulletin of marine science, 41(2), 475-489.

Comments:
Attributes such as high fecundity, ability to tolerate low oxygen concentrations and low salinities, and particularly, byssal "nesting" must have preadapted M. senhousia for dispersal around the world by shipping.

It would have been impossible for Musculista senhousia to have colonized major ports in the United States, New Zealand and Australia in a span of less than 40 years without the aid of shipping.
Molecular information Available

References (not structured):
http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/5720139
(Accessed November 2013)
Last update byAleksas Narščius, 2019-04-10