Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

Species Crassostrea virginica [WoRMS]
Authority (Gmelin, 1791)
Family Ostreidae  
Order Ostreida  
Class Bivalvia  
Phylum Mollusca  
Synonym (?) Dioeciostrea americana (Orton, 1928)
Ostrea borealis (Lamarck, 1819)
Ostrea canadensis (Lamarck, 1819)
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Country: Brazil
--> LME: 16. East Brazil Shelf
Country: Canada
--> LME: 7. Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf
--> LME: 8. Scotian Shelf
--> LME: 9. Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf
Country: USA
--> LME: 5. Gulf of Mexico
--> LME: 6. Southeast U.S. Continental Shelf
--> LME: 7. Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf
Country: Mexico
--> LME: 5. Gulf of Mexico; LME sub-region: Yucatan channel

References (not structured):
Buroker NE (1983) Population genetics of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica along the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology 75:99-112

Comments:
NW Atlantic
Crassostrea virginica naturally occurs in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, Canada, along the Atlantic coast of the United States to the Gulf of Mexico to the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and to the West Indies and the coast of Brazil.
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
ZoobenthosXX
Phytobenthos
ZooplanktonX
Phytoplankton
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)


References (not structured):
Kay EA, (1979) Hawaiian Marine Shells. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii, Section 4: Mollusca. B.P. Bishop Museum Spec. Pub, 64(4):653

Comments:
C. virginica is a benthic, broadcasting bivalve mollusc. C. virginica are abundant in shallow saltwater bays, lagoons and estuaries, in water 8 to 25 feet (2.5 to 7.5 m) deep.
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
SolitaryX
GregariousXX
Colonial


References (not structured):
Wilson C, Scotto L, Scarpa J, Volety A, Laramore S, and D Haunert. 2005. Survey of water quality, oyster reproduction and oyster health status in the St. Lucie Estuary. Journal of Shellfish Research 24:157-165.
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous

References (not structured):
Buroker NE (1983) Population genetics of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica along the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology 75:99-112
Reproductive type (?) Sexual

References:
Buroker NE (1983) Population genetics of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica along the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology 75:99-112

Comments:
The eastern oyster has separate sexes
Developmental trait (?) Planktotrophy
Spawning

References:
Dame RF (1972) The ecological energies of growth, respiration, and assimilation in the intertidal American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Marine Biology 17:243-250.

Buroker NE (1983) Population genetics of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica along the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology 75:99-112

Comments:
Crassostrea virginica spawn in late June to November peaking in June and July when seawater temperatures are warmest.
A female oyster can produce 15 to 114 million eggs in a single reproductive cycle.
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Photoautotroph
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – ActiveXX
Suspension feeder – Passive
Deposit feeder – SurfaceXX
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
PlanktotrophX
Chemoautotroph
Predator
Grazer


References (not structured):
Berquist DC, Hale JA, Baker P, and SM Baker. 2006. Estuaries and Coasts 29:353-360.

Comments:
Crassostrea virginica is a filter feeder. They suck in water and filter out the plankton and detritus to swallow, then spit the water back out, thus cleaning the water around them.
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
Burrower
DrifterXX
Temporary attachment
Permanent attachmentXX
Borer


References (not structured):
Wilson C, Scotto L, Scarpa J, Volety A, Laramore S, and D Haunert. 2005. Survey of water quality, oyster reproduction and oyster health status in the St. Lucie Estuary. Journal of Shellfish Research 24:157-165.
Salinity tolerance range (?) Venice system:
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]

References:
Gollasch S, Mecke R (1996) Eingeschleppte Organismen. In: J. L. Lozan, R. Lampe, W. Matthaus, E. Rachor, H. Rumohr & H. v. Westernhagen (Eds) Warnsignale aus der Ostsee. Parey Buchverlag, Berlin: 146-150

Wilson C, Scotto L, Scarpa J, Volety A, Laramore S, and D Haunert. 2005. Survey of water quality, oyster reproduction and oyster health status in the St. Lucie Estuary. Journal of Shellfish Research 24:157-165.

Comments:
Crassostrea virginica appears to have a higher tolerance of salinity fluctuation than other oyster species. The optimal salinity for growth and reproduction is 10 - 28 ppt (Wilson et al. 2005). Larvae will not settle and metamorphose into spat when salinity is less than 6 ppt (Wilson et al. 2005). Adult C. virginica can live in salinities up to 35 ppt.
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Keystone species
OLD VALUE

References:
Meyer DL and EC Townsend. 2000. Faunal utilization of created intertidal eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reefs in the southeastern United States. 23:34-45.

Berquist DC, Hale JA, Baker P, and SM Baker. 2006. Estuaries and Coasts 29:353-360.

EOBRT (2007) Status review of Crassostrea virginica. Status review of Crassostrea virginica. 105 pp

Comments:
--/OLD VALUES/--
Bioconstructor
Ecosystem engineer
Perennial habitat former (Anna)

Large beds provide habitat for numerous fish and invertebrate species, reduce water turbidity through filter-feeding, and physically serve as filter removing large material from the water as it passes over the reef.

Oysters are considered a keystone species in most estuaries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and self-sustaining populations play an essential role in the ecology of these estuaries. C. virginica display a wide range of survival strategies. They are both colonizers and ecosystem engineers and have high reproductive potential. The species’ ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions (e.g. tolerance for low dissolved oxygen and wide ranges in salinity and temperature) makes it resilient. C. virginica inhabit a naturally viable environment, and evidence suggests that past local extirpations and colonizations have been common over geologic time
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not entered
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Ballast waters

References:
Gollasch S, Macdonald E, Belson S, Botnen H, Christensen JT, Hamer JP, Houvenaghel G, Jelmert A, Lucas I, Masson D, McCollin T, Olenin S, Persson A, Wallentinus I, Wetsteyn LPMJ, Wittling T (2002) Life in Ballast Tanks In: Invasive aquatic species of Europe - distribution, impact and management. Leppäkoski, E., S. Gollasch & S. Olenin (eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers: 217-231
http://www.corpi.ku.lt/nemo/aqua_app_gollasch.pdf
Molecular information Available

NCBI: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi
Last update byAleksas Narščius, 2019-03-12