Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

Species Agarophyton vermiculophyllum [WoRMS]
Authority (Ohmi) Gurgel, J.N.Norris et Fredericq, 2018
Family Gracilariaceae  
Order Gracilariales  
Class Florideophyceae  
Phylum Rhodophyta  
Synonym (?) Gracilaria asiatica (Zhang & Xia, 1985)
Gracilaria vermiculophylla
Gracilariopsis vermiculophylla (Ohmi, 1956)
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Ocean: Pacific

References:
Paavola M, Olenin S, Leppäkoski E (2005) Are invasive species most successful in habitats of low native species richness across European brackish water seas? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64(4), 738-750

Comments:
W Pacific
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
Zoobenthos
PhytobenthosXX
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
SolitaryXX
GregariousXX
Colonial


References (not structured):
Nyberg, C. D., Thomsen, M. S., & Wallentinus, I. (2009). Flora and fauna associated with the introduced red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla. European Journal of Phycology, 44(3), 395-403.

Comments:
Can live attached on hard substrata,
can form mats,
but can also be found as isolated loose individuals.
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous

References (not structured):
Mantri, V. A., Reddy, C. R. K., & Jha, B. (2010). Reproductive processes in red algal genus Gracilaria and impact of climate change. In Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments (pp. 319-338). Springer Netherlands.
Reproductive type (?) Asexual
Sexual

References:
Nyberg, C. D., Thomsen, M. S., & Wallentinus, I. (2009). Flora and fauna associated with the introduced red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla. European Journal of Phycology, 44(3), 395-403.

Sfriso, A., Wolf, M. A., Maistro, S., Sciuto, K., & Moro, I. (2012). Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species< i> Gracilaria vermiculophylla(Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science.

Comments:
This perennial species has an isomorphic life cycle with male and female gametophytes and tetrasporophytes of similar morphology.

Its rapid spreading is mainly due to vegetative fragmentation.
Developmental trait (?) Unknown

References:
Abreu, M. H., Pereira, R., Sousa-Pinto, I., & Yarish, C. (2011). Ecophysiological studies of the non-indigenous species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) and its abundance patterns in Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal. European Journal of Phycology, 46(4), 453-464.

Peng, C., Hong-BO, S., Di, X., & Song, Q. (2009). Progress in Gracilaria biology and developmental utilization: main issues and prospective. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 17(4), 494-504.

Mantri, V. A., Reddy, C. R. K., & Jha, B. (2010). Reproductive processes in red algal genus Gracilaria and impact of climate change. In Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments (pp. 319-338). Springer Netherlands.

Comments:
Gametes are released in the water.
Carporporophyte grows on the female plant (Gametophyte), thus representing a case of "parental care"
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
PhotoautotrophXX
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – Active
Suspension feeder – Passive
Deposit feeder – Surface
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
Planktotroph
Chemoautotroph
Predator
Grazer
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
Burrower
DrifterX
Temporary attachmentXX
Permanent attachmentXX
Borer


References (not structured):
Thomsen, M. S., McGlathery, K. J., Schwarzschild, A., & Silliman, B. R. (2009). Distribution and ecological role of the non-native macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla in Virginia salt marshes. Biological Invasions, 11(10), 2303-2316.

Thomsen, M. S., Staehr, P. A., Nyberg, C. D., Schwærter, S., Krause-Jensen, D., & Silliman, B. R. (2007). Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, 1967 (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae) in northern Europe, with emphasis on Danish conditions, and what to expect in the future. Aquatic Invasions, 2(2), 83-94.

Comments:
ability to recruit onto patchy hard substratum in great abundances.

Also oberved unattached in salt marshes environments.

G. vermiculophylla is commonly incorporated into polychaete tubes, and this phenomena increases algal population stability
Salinity tolerance range (?) Exact range: 8.5 - 60

References:
Paavola M, Olenin S, Leppäkoski E (2005) Are invasive species most successful in habitats of low native species richness across European brackish water seas? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64 (2005) 738-750

Peng, C., Hong-BO, S., Di, X., & Song, Q. (2009). Progress in Gracilaria biology and developmental utilization: main issues and prospective. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 17(4), 494-504.

Schories D, Selig U (2006) How to deal with alien species within the EU Water Framework Directive? [Die Bedeutung eingeschleppter Arten (alien species) fur die Europaische Wasserrahmenrichtlinie am Beispiel der Ostsee]. Rostock. Meeresbiolog. Beitr., 15: 147-158 (in German with English summary)

Thomsen, M. S., Staehr, P. A., Nyberg, C. D., Schwærter, S., Krause-Jensen, D., & Silliman, B. R. (2007). Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, 1967 (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae) in northern Europe, with emphasis on Danish conditions, and what to expect in the future. Aquatic Invasions, 2(2), 83-94.

Comments:
The salinity response of G. vermiculophylla could reflect its intertidal distribution, since these plants are subjected to osmotic stress caused by variable periods of emersion.
The highest growth rates of G. vermiculophylla were observed in hypohaline conditions with an optimum at 20 ppt

G. vermiculophylla is more resistant to the stresses of desiccation and low salinity than several native algal species and thus may be able to survive for longer periods in the low marsh habitat.
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Allogenic ecosystem engineers
Autogenic ecosystem engineers

References:
Nyberg, C. D., Thomsen, M. S., & Wallentinus, I. (2009). Flora and fauna associated with the introduced red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla. European Journal of Phycology, 44(3), 395-403.

Tyler, A. C., McGlathery, K. J., & Macko, S. A. (2005). Uptake of urea and amino acids by the macroalgae Ulva lactuca(Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria vermiculophylla(Rhodophyta). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 294, 161-172.

Thomsen, M. S., Staehr, P. A., Nyberg, C. D., Schwærter, S., Krause-Jensen, D., & Silliman, B. R. (2007). Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, 1967 (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae) in northern Europe, with emphasis on Danish conditions, and what to expect in the future. Aquatic Invasions, 2(2), 83-94.

Thomsen, M. S., McGlathery, K. J., Schwarzschild, A., & Silliman, B. R. (2009). Distribution and ecological role of the non-native macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla in Virginia salt marshes. Biological Invasions, 11(10), 2303-2316.

Comments:
G. vermiculophylla is known as a ‘habitat-former’ that interacts ecologically with native fauna, creates habitats for a suite of associated epiphytes and invertebrates, and potentially with large impacts on ecosystem metabolism.

G. vermiculophylla contains a relatively
abundant epiflora and fauna, showing utilization by native marsh plants and animals.

As a fast-growing primary producer, it can be an important regulator of nitrogen (N) cycling.
The advection, accumulation, and subsequent decomposition of G. vermiculophylla are likely to have important implications for nutrient cycling and trophic dynamics in the
marsh environment.
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not entered
Bioaccumulation association (?) Not entered
Association with vessel vectors (?) Ballast waters
Biofouling
Sea chest

References:
Paavola M., A. Olenin, E. Leppakoski 2005. Are invasive species most successful in habitats of low native species richness across European brackish water seas? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 64: 738-750.

Sfriso, A., Maistro, S., Andreoli, C., & Moro, I. (2010). FIRST RECORD OF GRACILARIA VERMICULOPHYLLA (GRACILARIALES, RHODOPHYTA) IN THE PO DELTA LAGOONS, MEDITERRANEAN SEA (ITALY) 1. Journal of Phycology, 46(5), 1024-1027.
Molecular information Available

References (not structured):
Rueness, J. (2005). Life history and molecular sequences of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), a new introduction to European waters. Journal Information, 44(1).

Sfriso, A., Maistro, S., Andreoli, C., & Moro, I. (2010). FIRST RECORD OF GRACILARIA VERMICULOPHYLLA (GRACILARIALES, RHODOPHYTA) IN THE PO DELTA LAGOONS, MEDITERRANEAN SEA (ITALY) 1. Journal of Phycology, 46(5), 1024-1027.
Last update byAleksas Narščius, 2019-04-10