Association with vessel vectors

Actual evidence of being found in samples in a particular vector from any world region.

Anchor and anchor chains. Organisms found on anchors, anchor chain or within attached sediments, including anchor chain lockers.

Ballast water. Ballast water means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Biofouling. Biofouling means the accumulation of aquatic organisms such as micro-organisms, plants, and animals on surfaces and structures immersed in or exposed to the aquatic environment. Biofouling can include microfouling and macrofouling.

  • Macrofouling means large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
  • Microfouling means microscopic organisms including bacteria and diatoms and the slimy substances that they produce.
Biofouling comprised of only microfouling is commonly referred to as a slime layer.

Sea chest. The sea chests are cavities (an opening with protection grid) at the bottom side of the ships’ hull (an opening for pumping in and out water for, e.g., ballasting, firefighting) where aquatic organisms may settle and be transported.

Tank sediments. Matter settled out of ballast water within a ship.

Bioaccumulation association

Natural toxins. An organism that accumulates toxins naturally produced by other organisms, such as phytotoxins, in its tissues.

Anthropogenic chemical compounds. An organism that accumulates human-produced chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, in its tissues.

Characteristic feeding method

Chemoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy by oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron.

Deposit feeder – Subsurface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter in the substratum.

Deposit feeder – Surface. Synonym: detritivore. An organism feeding on fragmented particulate organic matter from the surface of the substratum.

Grazer. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton) and/or sessile animals organisms.

Herbivore. An organism feeding on plants (higher aquatic plants, benthic algae and phytoplankton).

Mixotroph. An organism both autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Omnivore. An organism feeding on mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Parasite. Feeding on the tissues, blood or other substances of a host.

Photoautotroph. An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton).

Planktotroph. An organism feeding on plankton.

Predator. An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.

Scavenger. An organism feeding on dead and decaying organic material.

Suspension feeder – Active. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, collecting it actively by sweeping or pumping (creating feeding currents).

Suspension feeder – Passive. An organism feeding on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column, utilizing the natural flow to bring particles in contact with feeding structures.

Symbiont contribution. Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).

Developmental trait

Brooding. The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding.

Direct development. A life cycle lacking a larval stage.

Spawning. The release of gametes into the water.

Lecithotrophy. Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female.

Parental care. Any form of parental behaviour that is likely to increase the fitness of offspring.

Planktotrophy. Feeding on plankton.

Resting stages. The quiescent stage in the life cycle (dormancy, diapause).

Viviparous. Producing live offspring from within parental body.

Habitat modifying ability potential

Autogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which change the environment via their own physical structures (i.e. their living and dead tissues) such as corals, oysters, kelps, sea grasses, etc.

Allogenic ecosystem engineers. Organisms which modify the environment by causing physical state changes in biotic and abiotic materials that, directly or indirectly, modulate the availability of resources to other species (e.g. excavating deep burrows which other organisms co-occupy, damming the water flow, etc).

Keystone species. A keystone species is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of its ecological community, by determining the types and numbers of other species.

Life form

Neuston. Organisms that live on (epineuston) or under (hyponeuston) the surface film of water bodies.

Zoobenthos. Animals living on or in the seabed.

Phytobenthos. Algae and higher plants living on or in the seabed.

Zooplankton. Animals living in the water column, unable to maintain their position independent of water movements.

Phytoplankton. Microscopic plankton algae and cyanobacteria.

Benthopelagos. Synonyms: hyperbenthic, benthopelagic, nektobenthic, demersal. An organism living at, in or near the bottom of the sea, but having the ability to swim.

Nekton. Actively swimming aquatic organisms able to move independently of water currents.

Parasite. An organism intimately associated with and metabolically dependent on another living organism (host) for completion of its life cycle.

Symbiont (nonparasitic). An organism living mutually with another species without harming it. Association of two species (symbionts) may be mutually beneficial.

Mobility

Boring. An organism capable of penetrating a solid substrate by mechanical scraping or chemical dissolution.

Burrowing. An organism capable of digging in sediment.

Crawling. An organism moving slowly along on the substrate.

Drifting. An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents.

Permanent attachment. Non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Also includes permanent attachment to a host.

Swimming. An organism capable of moving through the water by means of fins, limbs or appendages.

Temporary attachment. Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia). Also includes temporary attachment to a host.

Native origin

The region the species originates from.

References



References should follow the standard of Biological invasions:


Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Article by DOI


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Reproductive frequency

Iteroparous. Organisms breeding more than once in their lifetime.

Semelparous. Organisms breeding once in their lifetime.

Reproductive type

Asexual. Budding, Fission, Fragmentaion, including parthenogenesis. A form of asexual multiplication in which:
a) a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism;
b) the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization;
c) division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals is involved.

Self-fertilization. Selfing or autogamy. The union of a male and female gamete produced by the same individual.

Sexual. Permanent hermaphrodite, Protandrous hermaphrodite, Protogynous hermaphrodite, Gonochoristic.
Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time. A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature or vice versa.
Having separate sexes.

Salinity

The exact salinity range if known (psu), else salinity zone(s) according to the Venice system:
1. Limnetic [<0.5psu]
2. β-Oligohaline [0.5-3psu]
3. α-Oligohaline [3-5psu]
4. β-Mesohaline [5-10psu]
5. α-Mesohaline [10-18psu]
6. Polymixohaline [18-30psu]
7. Euhaline [30-40psu]
8. Hypersaline [>40psu]

Sociability

Colonial. Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding.

Gregarious. Organisms living in groups or communities, growing in clusters.

Solitary. Living alone, not gregarious.

Sub-species level

A geographical subset of a species showing discrete differences in morphology, coloration or other features when compared with other members of the species. Subspecies may also differ in their habitat or behavior, but they can interbreed. Often the lowest taxonomic level within a classification system.

Synonym

Valid synonyms of a species (not all of them).

Toxicity

Poisonous. An organism capable of producing poison that gains entry to another organism body via the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or via absorption through intact body layers.

Venomous. An organism capable of producing poison, usually injected through another organism intact skin by bite or sting.

Not relevant. Neither poisonous nor venomous.

Public domain: Species account

 
Species Marenzelleria neglecta [WoRMS]
Authority Sikorski & Bick, 2004
Family Spionidae  
Order Spionida  
Class Polychaeta  
Phylum Annelida  
Synonym (?)
Sub-species level (?) Not entered
Native origin (?) Ocean: Atlantic
--> Ocean region: NW Atlantic

References (not structured):
Paavola M., A. Olenin, E. Leppakoski 2005. Are invasive species most successful in habitats of low native species richness across European brackish water seas? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 64: 738-750.

Bochert R. & Bick A. (1995) Reproduction and larval development of Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta: Spionidae). Marine Biology, 123, 763-773

Comments:
North America
Life form / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Neuston
ZoobenthosXX
Phytobenthos
ZooplanktonXX
Phytoplankton
Benthopelagos
Nekton
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Symbiont (non parasitic)


References (not structured):
Bochert R (1997) Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta: Spionidae): a review of its reproduction. Aquatic Ecology Volume 31, Number 2, 163-175pp.

Bochert R. & Bick A. (1995) Reproduction and larval development of Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta: Spionidae). Marine Biology, 123, 763-773

Daunys D, Zettler ML, Gollasch S (1999) Marenzelleria cf. viridis (Verrill, 1873). In: Gollasch S, Minchin D, Rosenthal H, Voigt M (eds) Case histories on introduced species: their general biology, distribution, range expansion and impact. Berlin, Logos-Verlag, pp 61-67
Sociability / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
SolitaryXXXX
Gregarious
Colonial


References (not structured):
Daunys D, Zettler ML, Gollasch S (1999) Marenzelleria cf. viridis (Verrill, 1873). In: Gollasch S, Minchin D, Rosenthal H, Voigt M (eds) Case histories on introduced species: their general biology, distribution, range expansion and impact. Berlin, Logos-Verlag, pp 61-67
Reproductive frequency (?) Iteroparous

References (not structured):
Daunys D, Zettler ML, Gollasch S (1999) Marenzelleria cf. viridis (Verrill, 1873). In: Gollasch S, Minchin D, Rosenthal H, Voigt M (eds) Case histories on introduced species: their general biology, distribution, range expansion and impact. Berlin, Logos-Verlag, pp 61-67
Reproductive type (?) Sexual

References:
Daunys D, Zettler ML, Gollasch S (1999) Marenzelleria cf. viridis (Verrill, 1873). In: Gollasch S, Minchin D, Rosenthal H, Voigt M (eds) Case histories on introduced species: their general biology, distribution, range expansion and impact. Berlin, Logos-Verlag, pp 61-67
Developmental trait (?) Spawning

References:
Daunys D, Zettler ML, Gollasch S (1999) Marenzelleria cf. viridis (Verrill, 1873). In: Gollasch S, Minchin D, Rosenthal H, Voigt M (eds) Case histories on introduced species: their general biology, distribution, range expansion and impact. Berlin, Logos-Verlag, pp 61-67
Characteristic feeding method / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Photoautotroph
Mixotroph
Suspension feeder – ActiveXX
Suspension feeder – Passive
Deposit feeder – SurfaceXX
Deposit feeder – Sub-surface
Omnivore
Herbivore
Scavenger
Symbiont contribution
PlanktotrophX
Chemoautotroph
Predator
GrazerX


References (not structured):
Fauchald K, Jumars P, (1979) The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 17: 193-284

Comments:
Adults - feeding on sediment particles, meiobenthic and planktonic organisms.
This spionid polychaete is classified as a selective surface deposit-feeder and a suspension-feeder
Mobility / Life stage (?)
 AdultJuvenileLarvaeEggsResting stage
Swimmer
Crawler
BurrowerXX
DrifterXX
Temporary attachment
Permanent attachment
Borer


References (not structured):
Olenin S (2009) Marenzelleria neglecta Mesnil, red-gilled mud worm (Spionidae, Annelida), Handbook of alien species in Europe, 285 pp

Comments:
Planktonic larvae disperse with water currents. Adults inhabit vertical mucus lined burrows (up to 40 cm in depth).
Salinity tolerance range (?) Exact range: 0.5 - 8.8

References:
Olenin, S., & Daunys, D. (2004). Coastal typology based on benthic biotope and community data: the Lithuanian case study. Coastline Reports, 4, 65-84.

References:
Gruszka (1999) The river Odra estuary as a gateway for alien species immigration to the Baltic Sea Basin. Acta hydrochimica et hydrobiologica, 27(5): 374-382.
Daunys D, Oleninas S (1999) Bottom macrofauna communities in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon, south-eastern Baltic Sea. Ekologija, 2: 19-27 [in Lithuanian with English summary]
Ezhova E, Zmudzinski L, Maciejewska K (2005) Long-term trends in the macrozoobenthos of the Vistula Lagoon, southeastern Baltic Sea. Species composition and biomass distribution. Bulletin of the Sea Fisheries and biomass distribution. Bulletin of the Sea Fisheries Institute, 1(164): 55-73
Sikorski AV, Bick A (2004) Revision of Marenzelleria Mesnil, 1896 (Spionidae, Polychaeta). Sarsia, Vol. 89, Nr 4: 253-275

Bochert R., 1997, Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaete: Spionidae) a review of its
reproduction, Aquatic Ecology, 31, 163-175.

Comments:
Found in the field from nearly freshwater (<1 PSU) to marine conditions, the successful larval development is not possible however at lower salinities
Habitat modifying ability potential (?) Allogenic ecosystem engineers

References:
Kotta, J, Orav H, Sandberg-Kilpi E (2001) Ecological consequence of the introduction of the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis into a shallow water biotope of the northern Baltic Sea. J. Sea Res. 46: 273-280
Kotta J, Orav-Kotta H, Sandberg-Kilpi E (2004) Changes in the feeding behaviour of benthic invertebrates: effect of the introduced polychaete Marenzelleria viridis on the Baltic clam Macoma balthica. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol., 53, 269–275.
Kotta J, (2005) Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu –Fact sheet on Marenzelleria cf. viridis Accessed 20 06 2012.
Essink K, Eppinga J, Dekker R (2005) Long-term changes (1977-1994) in intertidal macrozoobenthos of the dollard (Ems estuary) and effects of introductions of the North American spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Verrill, 1873)

Urban-Malinga B., Warzocha J. & Zalewski M. (2013) Effects of the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria spp. on benthic processes and meiobenthos of a species-poor brackish system. Journal of Sea Research, 80, 25-36

Comments:
Burrowing species, affects the meiofauna distribution, induces oxygen penetration into the sediments and enhances the nutrient efflux
Toxicity / Life stage (?) Not relevant
Bioaccumulation association (?) Anthropogenic chemical compounds

References:
Josefsson S., Leonardsson K., Gunnarsson J.S. & Wiberg K. (2011) Influence of contaminant burial depth on the bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs by two benthic invertebrates (Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria spp.). Chemosphere, 85, 1444-1451

Klosterhaus S.L., Dreis E. & Baker J.E. (2011) Bioaccumulation kinetics of polybrominated diphenil ethers from estuarine sediments to the marine polychaete, Nereis virens. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30, 1204-1212

Comments:
accumulation of penta-BDE congeners, bioaccumulation of buried polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
Association with vessel vectors (?) Not entered
Molecular information Available

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=361650&lvl=0

http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=78929
Last update byRemigijus Jašinskas, 2019-04-16